Period 5 APUSH

Missouri Compromise 1820

Admitted Missouri as a Slave State and made Maine into a Free State in an effort to preserve the balance of power in congress. It also made the 36 30 line which allowed any state below to become Slave states and any above to be free states

Compromise of 1850

Five separate bills passed by congress in September 1850 which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states regarding the states of territories during the Mexican war

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Act passed by congress on May 30, 1854 which allowed people. In Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders through popular Sovreignty. This effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820

Wilmot Proviso

Document designed to eliminate slavery within the land acquired during the Mexican War

Popular Sovreignty

The principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People)

Fugitive Slave act

Act passed in the compromise of 1850 which stated any runaway slaves from the south to the north must be captured and returned

Harper's Ferry Raid

Raid led by John brown on Harpers Ferry and it's a arsenal in an attempt to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859

John Brown

Radical abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to completely abolish slavery in the United states

Stephen Douglas

American politician from Illinois that championed Popular Sovreignty and designed the Kansas Nabrask act

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

A series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln (Republican candidate for the Illinois senator) and Stephen Douglas (Democratic Candidate for the Illinois senator)

Freeport Doctrine

Speech written by Douglas stating that Territories could determine the existence of slavery through popular Sovreignty

Secession

The action of withdrawing formally from membership of a federation or body. The southern states had seceded from the Union in 1860

Uncle Toms Cabin

Anti-Slave novel written by Harriet Breecher Stowe which made Northern Abolitionists detest slavery more than they had before. It is said it helped lay the groundwork of the civil war

Harriet Breecher Stowe

American abolitionist and author who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin and created an increased amount of northern Abolitionists

Dred Scott Case/Decision5

Case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on March 6, 1857 ruled that Dred Scott (slave who resided where slavery is prohibited) was not thereby entitled to freedom. This effectively destroyed the Missouri compromise of 1820 and removed the idea of having free states

Fort Sumter

Location of the first battle of the civil war, fired upon in April 12, 1861 by South Carolina

Anaconda Plans/ Cotton diplomacy

A strategy created by union Genral Winfield Scott in 1861, which entailed cutting of supplies and surrounding the south, strangling them like an anaconda

Emancipation Proclimation

Proclimation issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 which declared that all people held as slaves within a confederate state are henceforth free

Border States

Slave states the bordered the Northern States during the civil war. These included Delaware Kentucky Maryland and Missouri.

Gettysburg Address

Abraham Lincoln's Speech at Gettysburg that proclaimed all that had died in the battle would be buried there, Making the area into a graveyard

MA 54th Regiment & Robert Gould Shaw

Massachusettes volunteer Infantry that saw extensive service in the Union army during the Civil War. This was one of the first official African American units and was led proudly by Robert Gould Shaw

Robert E. Lee & Ulysses S. Grant

Robert E. Lee was the Commanding general of the Confederate Army in the American Civil War from 1862 to his surrender 1865
Ulysses S. Grant was the Commanding General of the Union army and 18th president of the United States

Appomattox court house

Site of the battle of Appomattox Court House, which was the final battle of the American Civil War. Here, Robert E. Lee surrendered to Unlysses S. Grant

Black Codes

Laws passed by Southern States in 1865 and 1866 which had the intent of restricting African Americans' freedom and compelling them to work in a labor economy

Sharecropping

System of agriculture in which a Landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of the land

Tenant Farming/ Crop-lien System

Agricultural production system in which landowners contribute their land and a measure of operating while tenant farmers contribute their labor

Freedman's Bureau

U.S. Federal Government Agency established in 1865 to aid freedmen in the south during the Reconstruction era of the United States

Civil War Amendments

These amendments consist of the 13th 14th and 15th amendments to the United States constitution which abolished slavery, granted citizenship to all people, and allowed all men to vote

Civil Rights Act of 1866

Granted equal rights to all male people on the United States without distinction of Race, Color, or previous condition of servitude

Reconstruction Act

Laid out the process for read mittens Southern States into the Union. This included all the acts and Amendments passed throughout the reconstruction period

Plessy v. Ferguson

Supreme Court decision that allowed segregation under state laws using the "separate but equal" mentality

Radical Reconstruction

Policies enacted by Radical Republicans who wanted to enact strong laws against the South to prevent discrimination towards Blacks and act tough against the south while the Democrats had no power in Congress.

Poll tax

Taxes put on voting, generally designed to prevent blacks who couldn't afford to pay the tax from voting.

Literacy Test

Test enacted by many Southern states to prevent uneducated to vote, but really to prevent Blacks from voting.

Grandfather Clause

Allowed those who were allowed to vote prior to 1867 to circumvent literacy tests and poll taxes, to allow poor and uneducated whites to vote, whilst preventing uneducated Blacks to vote.

Redeemer government

Southern state governments dominated by the Redeemers from 1870s to 1910, who were Democrats who ousted Radical Republicans, which ushered in more discrimination towards Blacks and officially ended Reconstruction.

Compromise of 1877

Informal deal putting Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president over Dem. Tilden, as long as the Republicans pulled federal troops out of the South, formally ending the Reconstruction. Democrats took control of Southern state governments, making many Blacks feel betrayed, as they lost much power due to Democrats' fight to suppress their voting power.

Brown v. Board of Education

Supreme Court decision overturning Plessy v. Ferguson, stating segregated schools are "inherently unequal".

Frederick Douglass

Supreme Court decision overturning Plessy v. Ferguson, stating segregated schools are "inherently unequal".

Thaddeus Stevens

Radical Republican who pushed many reconstruction laws in Congress, and even pushed impeachment of Andrew Johnson.

Division among political parties

Whigs split into two, Cotton Whigs and Conscience Whigs. Cotton Whigs merged into the Democratic Party, supporting slavery, whereas the Conscience Whigs created the Free Soil Party, which merged into the Republican Party. Free Soilers wanted to prevent spread of slavery, but faded into the Republican Party. The Republicans were created from Independendent Democrats, Free Soilers, and Conscience Whigs. Moderates hated slavery, but only wanted to prevent spread, where Radicals wanted to obliterate slavery altogether. Democrats were primarily in the South and favored slavery.

First to secede and why

South Carolina left first, believing that Lincoln would unfairly treat the South and abolish slavery against their will.

Why did the North win

The North's overwhelming advantage of supplies from factories and larger military eventually wore down the South. Sherman's March and Grant's strategic prowess ended up being too much for Lee's forces.

How did the Emancipation Proclamation alter the purpose and course of the Civil War?

The Emancipation Proclamation turned the Civil War from the purpose of keeping the Union together to ending slavery, which made blacks far more likely to fight, as to them, it would lead to their freedom.

Long & Short Term effects of the Civil War

Short Term: Poverty in South from newly freed slaves without land or homes, and from farmers no longer with workers or from demolished land from war. Sharecropping emerged as a major form of labor, and Reconstruction tried to ensure Black rights, while the South enacted Black Codes and literacy tests against the Blacks.
Long-Term: South accepted more industrialization due to lack of slavery, civil rights issues still emerged, and the Republican Party was now a major power in government.

How did Reconstruction affect the relationship between the President and Congress?

With Johnson as president wanting a less harsh plan than Congress, Congress overpowered Johnson's will, overriding vetoes and even considering impeachment. It got to the point where Johnson was left practically powerless.

Southern Resistance to Reconstruction

The South began to segregate schools, and eventually pretty much everything, pushing the mentality of "separate but equal" which wasn't true, enacting poll taxes and literacy tests for voting specifically to prevent blacks from voting, negating their power, and groups such as the KKK violently attacked blacks directly, murdering many, many people.

Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan

A general amnesty would be granted to all who would take an oath of loyalty to the United States and pledge to obey all federal laws pertaining to slavery, high Confederate officials and military leaders were to be temporarily excluded from the process, & when one tenth of the number of voters who had participated in the 1860 election had taken the oath within a particular state, then that state could launch a new government and elect representatives to Congress.

Johnson's Rconstruction Plan

Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath, no pardons would be available to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000, a state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted, & a state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.R