AP World History Colonialism Terms

Moluccas

Known to the Europeans as the Spice Islands; chief source of the spices that had originally attracted the Portugese to the Indian Ocean

Prince Henry

(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.

Cartographers

Map makers; they are very concerned with the problem of distortion.

Mombasa

a coastal city of East Africa that was an important trade center

Malindi

an east African town in SE Kenya (was attacked by the Portuguese in the 1400s)

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.

Christopher Columbus

An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The

Treaty of Tordesillas

A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Line of Demarcation

An imaginary line running down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugal

Ferdinand Magellan

(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circ

circumnavigate

to travel around the earth on water or in the air

Cape Town

seaport city and legislative capital of South Africa; first Dutch colony in Africa

Boers

Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended from early Dutch settlers

Afonso de Albuquerque

Portuguese naval/military leader who ended Muslim control of the Indian Ocean trade--took Goa, Moluccas, and held much of SE under Portuguese control

Mughal empire

Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Goa

Urge on (as cattle) with a pointed or electrically charged stick; spur on, stimulate, encourage

Malacca

Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka. (p. 387)

outposts

distant areas under a country's control

Dutch East India Company

A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and b

sovereign

(adj.) having absolute authority in a certain realm (The sovereign queen, with steely resolve, ordered that the traitorous nobleman be killed.)

Philippines

After decades of nationalist resistance against the Spanish (and violent repression of activists) this Pacific Island nation proudly declared independence in 1898. But the Spanish had handed control over to the USA, who had no plans to recognize their ind

sepoys

Indian troops who served in the British army

Macao

One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty

Guangzhou

a small trading outlet. The Qing dynasty had restricted European merchants to this place. The merchants could deal with only a few Chinese firms, which the British did not like this arrangement

Matteo Ricci

Portuguese Jesuit missionary who went to China, assimilated into Chinese culture and language and ran a Christian mission in China.

Manchus

Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.

Qing

The Chinese government is ruled by this ethnically Manchurian dynasty during this period. They attempted to hold on to pre-industrial ways and resisted foreign involvement in their country (without success).

Qianlong

Chinese Qing emperor (r. 1736-1795), grandson of Kangxi who continued his grandfather's conquests by consolidating hold on Xinjiang province (westernmost). He made Vietnam, Burma and Nepal vassal states of China, and delegated responsibilities to his favo

Lord Macartney

British diplomat; he visited China in 1793 to discuss expanding trade. He was sent away after his goods were found to be inferior and he refused to kowtow to the emperor

Tokugawa

Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences. shogunate started by Tokugawa Ieyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; m

Nagasaki

Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945.

Taino

A Caribbean tribe who were the first indigenous peoples from the Americas to come into contact with Christopher Columbus. First in the encomienda system.

conquistadors

Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.)

immunity

A condition of being able to resist a particular disease, especially through preventing development of a pathogenic microorganism or by counteracting the effects of its products.

Hernan Cortes

1485-1547, Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico

Tenochtitlan

Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.

Malinche

with the help,of his Indian guide (_____), Cortez learned that many under aztec rule hated the aztec sand he was able to make alliances between them (advantage #2)

alliances

a union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations.

Moctezuma

Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.

Francisco Pizarro

A conquistador like Cortes, who conquered the Incas in Peru and help to begin more advances in South America. Besides miners, farmers, priests, friars and missionaries went to South America after it was conquered by the conquistadores.

civil war

A war between people of the same country.

privateers

Pirates who operated with the approval of European governments

viceroys

representatives of the Spanish monarch in Spain's colonial empire

encomiendas

Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.

Bartolome de Las Casas

First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.

peons

Workers forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off a debt

peninsulares

Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.

creoles

In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.

mestizos

A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry

mulattoes

In colonial Latin America, Spanish/African who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.

New France

French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763.

Jacques Cartier

This Frenchman explored the coast of Canada and claimed it for the French, French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)

Samuel de Champlain

Cartographer, explorer, governor of New France. The major role Champlain played in the St Lawrence River area earned him the title of "father of New France.

revenues

The financial resources of the federal government. The individual income tax and Social Security tax are two major sources of it.

John Cabot

Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)

Pilgrims

English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620

compact

Hard and dense, but not solid, bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone.

French and Indian War

(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.

Treaty of Paris

agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry

plantations

Huge farms that required a large labor force to grow crops

Afonso I

The King of Kongo whose rule began in 1506 and who was influenced by the Portuguese.

missionaries

A person sent on a religious mission. Mostly Christian missionaries sent to countries where the U.S. was trying to achieve influence.

Olaudah Equiano

sold into slavery at age 11; after gaining freedom, he spoke out against slavery and published his autobiography
(1745-1797) African who was sold into slavery and bought his way out-kidnapped as a boy (age 11) from his home he was sold into slavery and so

triangular trade

Trading System between Europe, Africa, and the colonies; European purchased slaves in Africa and sold them to colonies, new materials from colonies went to Europe while European finished products were sold in the colonies.

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

monopoly

A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.

Columbian Exchange

An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.

Commercial revolution

A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.

inflation

A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.

price revolution

Increase in prices in 16th century inflation increased demand for goods-influx of gold and silver.

capitalism

An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

free enterprise system

An economic system in which individuals depend on supply and demand and the profit margin to determine what to produce, how to produce, how much to produce, and for whom to produce. The quest for improvement financially and materially motivates consumers

entrepreneurs

a risk- taking individual in search of profits who does something new with existing resources

mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

tariffs

Taxes on imported goods