Buying on Margin

the purchasing of stocks by paying only a small percentage of the price and borrowing the rest. Roaring 20s.

Dust Bowl

Great Plain where a severe drough hit, killing all of the crops of the region. The topsoil turned to a fine powdery dust that blew away with the severe, hot winds that wreaked havoc on the farmers who remained. The area earned this name because Plains far

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff/ Tariff Act of 1930

Increased protection on 75 farm products. Did not ultimately help farmers significantly.


Another word for shantytowns that unemployed people made on the outsides of towns - showed declining public support for Herbert Hoover.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation(RFC)

to give out loans to railroads, banks and monopolistic companies. To Pump money back in to economy

Bonus Army

more than 20,000 veterans who marched in to Washington to demand that a bonus be paid to those who had served in World War I. This resulted in more than 100 protestors being injured by police, causing people to hate Hoover even more.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure

New Deal

President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and

Fireside Chats

The informal radio talks President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had with Americans during the Great Depression. They not only unified America with these nationwide speeches, but he roses American spirits by encouraging Americans through the Great Depression.

Emergency Banking Act

Passed in 1933, created a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen banks that were strong enough to survive

21st Amendment

repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol

Agricultural Adjustment Act(AAA)

May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936

National Recovery Act(NRA)

Under direction of Hugh S. Johnson; called for every business in the nation to accept a temporary blanket code--a minimum wage of between 30 and 40 cents per hour, a maximum workweek of 35-40 hours, and the abolition of child labor.

Tennessee Valley Authority

In 1933, America's government constructed dams on the Tennessee River in order to improve the lives of millions of poor citizens that would not afford electricity, instead the dams turned the water power into hydroelectricity. The dams also decreased Amer

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC)

Established by the Glass-Steagall Act; guaranteed all bank deposits up to $2500.

Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC)

Created to police the stock market

Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC)

an agency, established as part of the New Deal, that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood-control projects.

Dr. Francis E. Townsend/ Townsend Plan

plan where government would pay $200 a month to citizens over the age of 60 (pensions), and they were required to spend it; would provide a steady income for the elderly and would get money back into circulation; this would stimulate the economy and creat

Huey Long

Senator of Louisiana, who's "Share Our Wealth" plan would give families $5000, was socialist and was later assassinated.

100 Days

Roosevelt being in office; his goal was to provide relief, reform, and recovery for the nation's economy.

National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)

-Managed the complaints of laborers and other people in unions through the NLRB
-established a defined minimum wage and gave workers the right to bargain collectively

Congress of Industrial Organizations(CIO)

A federation of labor union for all workers; provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.

Social Security Act

Social Security Act Created in 1935, it created pension and insurance for senior citizens, the blind, handicapped, deliquent children, and etc. Republicans did not approve of the act.

The Works Progress Administration(WPA)

Created in 1935, it put $11 million into public buildings, bridges, and roads, and it also gave 9 million people jobs. it found part time jobs for high school and college students, actors, musicians, and writers.

Court Packing Bill

Legislative initiative proposed by Franklin D Roosevelt to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court

Recession of 1937

temporary reversal of the pre-war 1933 to 1941 economic recovery, which occurred in 1937-38. It was part of the Great Depression in the United States, and had serious political results, and helped strengthen the new Conservative Coalition led by Senators

Fair Labor Standards Act

Federal Law that established certain minimum requirements for employee's hours, wages, premium overtime, and payroll records.

Eleanor Roosevelt

New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

encouraged tribes to preserve their culture and traditions.

Brain Trust

Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. Roosevelts group They were more influential than the Cabinet.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

First outlined by French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, then readjusted by Secretary of State, Frank Kellogg. Outlawed war as an instrument of national policy. 14 nations signed it in Paris on August 27, 1928.

Dawes Plan

allowed Germany to take loans from American banks to pay their war debts to Great Britain and France, who would then use loans from American banks to pay their debts to America. Basically America took money and gave it to other countries to then give back

Stimson Doctrine

In 1932, the policy declared in a note to Japan and China that the US would not recognize any international territorial changes brought about by force. It was enacted after Japan's military seizure of Manchuria in 1931.

The Good Neighbor Policy

withdrawal of American troops from foreign nations (especially Latin America) to improve international relations and unite western hemisphere; Clark Memorandum (rebukes the "big stick"); peaceful resolution of Mexican oil fields

The Washington Conference(1921)

This was an attempt to prevent a naval arms race between U.S., Britain, and Japan. At this, the people accepted most of Hughes plans related to fleet reductions in the three nations and a 10-year ban on large warships.

Neutrality Acts

The acts stated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans t

Quarantine Speech

October 1937 in Chicago. This was a response to the Japanese attack on China's five northern provinces. Roosevelt said that these aggressors should be isolated by the international committee so that the contagion of war could not spread.

Munich Pact(Appeasement)

This was the policy that involved the Munich Agreement and was associated with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. This was a huge failure because in March 1939, Hitler occupied the remaining areas of Czechoslovakia which was a violation of the Mu

Lend-Lease Act

This was a policy that was used only with Britain in place of cash-and-carry. It allowed the US government to not only sell but also to "lend" or "lease" war materials to any nation that was deemed "pivotal to the defense of the US". Basically, it allowed

Atlantic Charter

This was a document that was produced when FDR and Churchill met on a British vessel off the coast of Newfoundland. It basically said that America and Britain had similar goals and principles and that the Nazi tyranny must end. It was basically a list of

Pearl Harbor

in Hawaii that was attacked by Japan at 7:55 A.M. on Sunday, December 7, 1941. Within two hours, the US had lost 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other vessels, 188 airplanes, and several vital shore installations. More than 2,400 soldiers died.

Island Hopping

A military strategy used by Americans in the Pacific during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others; the capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an i

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers; marked a turning point in World War II.


Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews of Europe

War Production Board(WPB)

A government agency that decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production and allocated raw materials to key industries.

Double V Campaign

American Black leaders during WW2 emphasized the need for double victory over Germany and Japan, segregation no longer tolerable

Zoot Suit Riots

occurred mostly in Los Angeles, CA between white marines and young Mexican Americans. White marines thought that the dress of the Mexican Americans was un-patriotic, although about 300,000 Mexican Americans were in the armed forces.

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories; became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

Baby Boom

Rise in birth rates that accompanied the increase in marriages

Executive Order 9066/ Japanese Internment

Authorizing secretary of war to prescribe certain areas as military zones, clearing way for deportation of Japanese to internment camps

Korematsu v. U.S.

1944 Supreme Court case in which the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans; it was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.


160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France; more than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the invasion, and by day's end, the Allies gained a fo

V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

German forces surrendered with great celebrations in West Europe and US


Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships during WWII.

The Manhattan Project

A secret research and development project of the U.S. to develop the atomic bomb; its success granted the U.S. the bombs that ended the war with Japan; FDR gave the highest national priority to the development of an atomic bomb; cost several billion dolla

Harry S. Truman

The 33rd U.S. president; succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt when he died (1945); led the country through the last few months of World War II; best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945; implemented t

Atomic Bomb

A type of weapon that changed the world; it ended WWII in Japan and created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union.


First city in Japan that the U.S. destroyed with an atomic bomb (August 6, 1945). The bombing hastened the end of World War II.


Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

V-J Day(August 15, 1945)

News of surrender was announced to the world, celebrations of final ending of WW2


Law which made it so that nations could only buy nonmilitary goods from the US and they had to pay for the goods and ship them by themselves.new

Trickle-Down Economy

Coolidge would assist the hard pressed railroads,banks, and rural credit corporations in the hope that if financial health were restored at the top of the economic pyramid, unemployment would be relieved at the bottom on a trickle down basis. Got Congress

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929; signaled a selling frenzy on Wall Street--days before stock prices had plunged to desperate levels. Investors were willing to sell their shares for pennies on the dollar or were simply holding on to the worthless certificates.


given to farmers and their families who came from the panhandle regions of Oklahoma or Texas to California in search of the "Promised Land