APUSH Combined

Walter Raleigh

A famous English explorer who added to the myths of El Dorado. Favorite of Queen Elizabeth I. Helped establish the colony of Virginia with a Royal patent.

Elizabeth I

Protestant ruler of England. Supported colonizations of the Americas sending over explorers such as Sir Walter Raleigh. Her defeat over the Spanish Armada led to the dominance of England's rule over the North Atlantic Sea, worrying American forces.

Treaty of Tordesillas

Spain secured its claims in Colombia with this document. It divided the lands of the New World with Portugal. Favored Spain and allowed them to become the dominant colonization power in the 1500s.

Samuel Adams

He was appointed as a representative of the Continental Congress and even signed the Declaration of Independence. He became the Governor of Massachusetts after he quit working for the Continental Congress. Helped lead the revolt of the Stamp Act of 1765.

Pocahontas

A Native-American Indian who was the daughter of Chief Powhatan. Married John Rolfe, an Englishman. She saved John Smith and Jamestown by helping the people grow their own food.

Bacon's Rebellion

Revolt caused by frustrated landless or poor freemen. The people resented Governor Berkeley's friendly policies toward Indians. This uprising was crushed, but it showed that poor people can rebel so people looked for other sources of labor, such as slaver

John Rolfe

Father of the tobacco industry. He saved Virginia with tobacco cultivation, which became Jamestown's "gold". Marriage with Pocahontas ended the First Anglo-Powhatan War.

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

Spanish navy entered the English Channel. English fought back and inflicted damage on Spanish ships. Showdown in 1588 that arose a "Protestant Wind" scattering the Spanish

John Smith

Helped save Jamestown. Was kidnapped and subjected to "execution by Powhatan chief. Saved by Pocahontas.

Jamestown

1st establishment in the New World. Fort James was the defensive post against the indians. Financed by Virginia Company and chartered by King James I who wanted to make the establishment a permanent colony.

Thomas Dale

This English naval commander was the Governor of Virginia in 1611. He was sent to Jamestown with provisions for the already settled colonists. Upon arriving to Virginia, he found the conditions unhealthy and disorganized. He immediately called for a meeti

John Calvin

This pastor of the Protestant Reformation, was the principal figure in the creation of the Christian theology called Calvinism. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church and fled to S

John Winthrop

He served as the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He claimed that Americans stood distinct from Europeans and had an opportunity to usher in a new age for humanity in his famous "City Upon the Hill" speech.

Peter Stuyvesant

A Dutch General who led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Governor of New Netherlands who lost the land to the English.

Anne Hutchinson

A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of the colony's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy

King Philip's War

This was centered around a Wampanoag chief who forged an alliance with the Indians. He then staged a series of attacks against the English and burned several cities. It slowed the advance of the English and killed off many Indians.

Roger Williams

Religious radical who was exiled from Salem in the Massachusetts colony because he disagreed with the separation of church and state. Soon founded his own colonial settlement in Providence, which later became Rhode Island. Founder of the first Baptist Chu

Dominion of New England

British -controlled government union in the American colonies headed by Sir Edmund Andros. Was founded under the purpose of managing the large area from New Jersey to Maine. After the
Glorious Revolution, a revolt was started to remove the unpopular Andro

New England Confederations

Military alliance founded in 1643 made up of many Northern colonies. Created to protect the colonies from the surrounding Indian attacks and tribes. Became important during King Phillip's War against Metacomet in 1654.

Patroonships

These were vast estates along the Hudson River established by the Dutch. They were granted to promoters who would settle at least fifty people on them. They had difficulty attracting peasant labor, and most were not successful.

William Penn

An English quaker who founded Pennsylvania in 1682 after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance. His goal was also to establish a place where people could live i

Jeremiads

In the 1600's, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers. To combat this decreasing piety, they preached a new certain type of sermon. These people focused their teachings on a biblical prophet who warned

Glorious Revolution 1688

Bloodless overthrow of King James II of England. Caused by the unpopularity of his religious tolerance policies in Parliament. King James II was the last Roman Catholic to rule England, being replaced by the Dutch William III and Mary II.

Great Puritan Migration

Massive religious exodus from England to New England from 1620 to 1640. These English settlers were motivated mainly by a quest for religious freedom. Primarily settled in Massachusetts and the British West Indies.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

A Constitution set up for the colonial government of Hartford. Created by a group of Massachusetts Puritans and Congregationalists who wanted to set up a society with their own rules and regulations. Based on the rights of the individual, its principles i

Treaty of Utrecht

This was signed in a Dutch city in April 1713. It ended the Spanish War of Succession. It was a series of documents rather than one document.

Bacon's Rebellion

Uprising in Virginia in 1676. Its participants consisted of mostly indentured servants, poor whites, and poor blacks. They overthrew the governor of the time because of his friendly policies towards the Native Americans.

Middle Passage

Part of the triangle trade that transported slaves to the New World. Mortality rate among slaves on the journey was over 15%. The slaves were taken from Western Africa and shipped the South, the Caribbean, and South America.

Salem Witch Trials

Early 1690s, group of girls claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women. Led to the search and execution of 20 people. Larger searches were already occurring in Europe and this hysteria ended in 1693.

Half Way Covenant

All people could come and participate in church even if they were not "visible saints". Admitted to baptism but not "full communion". Weakened distinction between the "elect" and others which diluted the spiritual purity of the original settlers' godly co

Headright System

This encouraged growth of the Chesapeake. If an aristocrat sponsored an indentured servant's passage to America, the aristocrats earned the right to purchase 50 acres land while servants worked for 7 years. Land was being consumed by the rich and running

Leisler's Rebellion

A German American merchant and militia captain seized control of New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "glorious revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority

Triangular Trade Routes

The sea trading path connected England, the English colonies in North America, and the west coast of Africa. England produced goods for the colonies, the colonies produced raw materials for the indies and England, and rum for Africa. Indies produced sugar

First Great Awakening

A time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the english colonies in Ame

George III

English monarch at the time of the American Revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances. Until 1776, the colonists believed he supported their attempt to k

George Whitefield

He is credited with starting the Great Awakening. Also known as a leader of the "new lights," he traveled throughout colonies attracting large crowds. He also took trips across the entire country inspiring many into Christianity.

Jonathon Edwards

He was a powerful preacher during Great Awakening. His message was of hell and an angry god. He gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of hell, writing "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was eventually found not guilty.

Battle of Saratoga

This was the turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in new England by taking control of the Hudson river, and,

John Trumbull / Charles Peale

They were colonial American painters. They were heavily influenced by European tastes. One had to move to London to follow his painting dream and the other was known for his portraits of George Washington.

Paxton Revolt

Took place in Philadelphia in 1764. It was a protest of the Quaker's lenient policies toward Indians. It was led by Scots-Irish immigrants.

Regulator Protests

It was a movement that took place in North Carolina. It was a small but nasty insurrection against the British domination of the colony's affairs. Many who participated in this eventually joined to fight against Britain in the Revolutionary War.

Phillis Wheatley

A slave girl who was never formally educated. Went to London and published a remarkable book of poetry. Wrote polished works despite her severely disadvantaged background.

William Pitt

A superlative leader brought forth by Britain during the French and Indian War. Became the foremost leader in the London government in 1757. Defeated the French at the Battle for Quebec.

Treaty of Paris 1763

Ended the French and Indian War in North America, Diminished French power in North America and Spain was eliminated from Florida. The Indian tribes lost their ability to play European powers off of each other.

Pontiac's Rebellion

Uprising that was made up of multiple Native American tribes that were dissatisfied with British post-French-Indian War policies. Military stalemate but caused British to change its policies governing the Native Americans. Named after the leader of the Ot

Proclamation of 1763

Meant to keep relations with the Native Americans after the French and Indian War at a peaceful agreement. Restricted the British colonies expansion into the Western territories. Caused built up anger in colonial feelings towards the British.

Samuel de Champlain

The "Father of New France". A Frenchman who founded New France and Quebec City while on a colonizing mission for the French crown. Mapped most of the New World and paved the way for future explorers to find their way throughout the strange New World.

Albany Congress 1754

In 1754 the British government asked colonial representatives to meet to develop a treaty to keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the british in the spreading war. Its long term purpose was to achieve greater colonial unity and thus bolster the common defens

Battle of Quebec

It Followed the successful capture of Louisbourg in 1758, British leaders began planning for another strike in Canada the next year. Under General James Wolfe, the expedition arrived in early June 1759 and the direction of the attack caught the French com

Battle of Louisburg

Occurred during the French and Indian war, the siege of a French fort by the British/American troops. Pivotal battle to gain access to the Saint Lawrence River and French Canada. smaller British/American troops prevail over French.

Theory of Mercantilism/Adam Smith

An economic idea that wealth creates power.It is best to export more than is imported. One of main fathers of this idea wrote The Wealth of Nations.

George Grenville

Became British Prime Minister after Lord Bute resigned in 1763. Best known for his Stamp Act, taxing the colonies. Constantly creating more tension between the rest of the British Parliament, though William Pitt was his political ally.

Sugar Act 1764

A tax passed by British parliament to raise revenue. This taxed many things, but mainly lumber, which could only be exported to Britain, and molasses. It followed the expiration of the Molasses Act and was meant to be enforced more strictly.

Stamp Act 1765

Direct tax imposed on the colonists by Parliament which increased the money colonists paid on printed goods. Purpose was to pay for British soldiers stationed in North America after the French and Indian War. Protests against this tax often turned violent

Quartering Act 1765

The name of at least two 18th-century Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. These Acts ordered the local governments of the American colonies to provide housing and provisions for British soldiers. Originally intended as a response to problems that aro

Declaratory Act 1766

An Act of the British Parliament which accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765. Stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain. Asserted Parliament's authority to pass laws that were binding on the American colonies.

Townshend Acts

Legislation passed in 1767 with the purpose of raising revenue. Tightened customs enforcement and asserted British imperial authority in America. Taxes placed on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea.

Boston Massacre

Lead to the deaths of 5 colonists after citizens of the town had been harassing British soldiers. caused by the resentment built up after British soldiers occupied cities that refused to accept the Townshend Acts. Showed opposition to the British presence

Committees of Correspondence

Groups of American revolutionists created these commissions to maintain contact with one another. The first of these was created by Samuel Adams in 1772. Used to sustain opposition to British rule amongst Americans.

Boston Tea Party

Protest against a Parliament imposed tax which aimed at reducing competition for the British East India Company. Members of the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indians and threw the cargo of a British merchant ship overboard into a Massachusetts harbor. Cau

Intolerable Act

Piece of legislation meant to chastise mainly Boston, Massachusetts. The most drastic of them closed the Boston harbor until damages for the Boston Tea Party were paid. Many rights of colonial Massachusetts were swept away.

Quebec Act

In 1774, this accompanied the "intolerable acts". It was Britain's way of dealing with sixty-thousand conquered French subjects in Canada. However, American colonists were bothered by the extension of Roman Catholic jurisdiction with the huge southward re

Samuel Adams

An American statesman, political philosopher, and one of America's Founding Fathers. Helped to create the committees of correspondence. Master of propaganda to incite social action.

The Association

A system created in 1774 by the First Continental Congress. Boycott with Britain in response to the Intolerable Acts. Hoped that it would cause Britain to repeal the Intolerable Acts.

Battles of Lexington and Concord

British commander sent troops to seize supplies (gunpowder). Minute Men were sent to fight back. Sparked the start of Revolutionary War.

Virtual Representation

In England, elected members of Parliament claimed to represent the interests of all royal subjects no matter where they lived. The colonists disagreed; they felt that delegates should represent only those who had elected them.

Olive Branch Petition

Congress adopted this after Bunker Hill, professing American loyalty and begging the king to prevent further hostilities. However, George III declared the colonies in rebellion.

John Hancock

Governor of Massachusetts and President of the Second Continental Congress. Used his wealth to help support the colonial cause. Most famous signer of the Declaration of Independence, as his name has become synonymous with signature.

Bunker Hill

Took place in the Siege of Boston in early American Revolutionary War. Result was a British victory but they took a large hit in the casualties. Also resulted in the British capturing the Charlestown Peninsula.

Conway Cabal

A series of events in 1777 and 1778 which suggested that George Washington be replaced as commander of the Continental Army. Started when a Brigadier General of the Continental Army sent letters to the Continental Congress which criticized and expressed d

Benedict Arnold

He was a very successful general during the Revolutionary War. He defected to the British in exchange for a high rank in the British Army and some property in England. He planned to surrender West Point to the British, but American forces discovered the p

Thomas Paine

He published the pamphlet Common Sense 1776 urging colonists to stop this war of inconsistency and fight. Argued that nowhere in the Universe did a smaller body control a larger one. Argued his idea for a Republic with representative government.

George III

English monarch at the time of the American Revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances. He wished to keep the americans as a loyal colony, instituting man

Battle of Saratoga

Led by British General John Burgoyne, part of Britain's campaign to attempt to split New England. America causes British to surrender. Pivotal in gaining French support.

Chief Joseph Brant

The leader of the Mohawk tribe. Led the Mohawks in the decision to aid the British in the Revolutionary War because of his belief that their victory would stop American western expansion. Was a convert to Anglicanism.

George Rogers Clark

An audacious frontiersman who conceived the idea of seizing British forts by surprise. Floated down the Ohio River with 175 men and captured forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. His efforts forced the British to cede the region north of the Ohio River

Battle of Trenton

Midnight crossing of the Delaware River on Christmas to attack Hessian soldiers. The surprise attack allowed the Continental Army to capture the entire Hessian force stationed at the garrison. Moral was low and this engagement and victory spurred patrioti

Ben Franklin

One of the founding fathers, given the nickname "The First American". Nominated by the Pennsylvania Assembly as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. Ambassador to France after the Revolutionary War. Published Poor Man's Almanack and The Penn

Battle of Yorktown

The last major attack in the American Revolutionary War. George Washington lead American troops against British and French forces lead by Lord Cornwallis and Comte de Rochambeau. Lord Cornwallis surrendered and it was a shock to the world that the America

John Paul Jones

Was a Scottish sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. His actions in British waters during the Revolution earned him an international reputation which persists to this day. Is known for his quote;

Treaty of Paris 1783

Ended the American Revolutionary War. It is most famous for being "exceedingly generous" to the United States in terms of enlarged boundaries. It set new borders for the United States, including all land from the Great Lakes on the north to Florida on the

Land Ordinance of 1785

This was the first of the "red-letter laws passed by the Confederation. It provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. It was to be divided into townships six miles

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Congress agreed to carve from the new this new land not colonies, but a number of "republican" states, which in time would be admitted to the Union on terms of complete equality with all others. This was the first organized territory of the United States

Shays' Rebellion

An armed uprising in western Massachusetts. The leader of the militia was an American Revolutionary War veteran who was fighting to save his farm land. The farmers did not want or could not pay off the high taxes, and believed that the Articles of Confede

New Jersey Plan

Presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention. This was a response to the Virginia plan, in order to have a one vote per state in one of the houses in Congress. The Senate gives each state two representatives making it fair for each state

Virginia Plan

Government layout drafted by James Madison at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The House of Representatives is based on this system where the population of each of the States determines the number of votes they get in the house of Congress. This mad

Connecticut Plan

Agreement between states during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Defined legislative structure and representation of each state. Proportional representation in lower house and equal representation in the higher house of government.

Federalists

The first Political party in the United States. Called for a strong central government and supported a national bank, tariffs, and good relations with Britain. Led by Alexander Hamilton.

Anti-Federalists

A movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. government. Opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. Led by Patrick Henry.

Federalist Papers

A series of 85 articles or essays promoting the ratification of the U.S. constitution written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. Explained how the government would operate and why it was the best choice for the United States of America.

The Society of Cincinnati

The nation's oldest patriotic organization founded in 1783 by officers of the Continental Army to perpetuate friendships forged in war and to preserve the memory of the U.S. Revolution. Membership is based on the eligibility of their ancestors. Each membe

Charles Beard's book: "An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the US

It argues that the structure of the Constitution of the United States was motivated by the personal financial interests of the Founding Fathers. States that the Constitution was therefore written by the elite seeking to protect its personal property. The

Whiskey Rebellion

Tax protest under Washington's presidency in Pennsylvania. The tax was part of Hamilton's plan to pay off national debt. Showed the government's willingness and ability to suppress resistance against its laws.

Washington's First Cabinet

Was not required for the U.S. president. One of the several precedents this president set down. The Secretary of State was Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton, and the Secretary of War was Henry Knox.

Hamilton and the Bank of the U.S.

Charted for twenty years by Congress on February 25th, 1791. Established by the first secretary of treasury. Found necessary to improve the nation's credit and improve financial business under the newly enacted constitution.

Alexander Hamilton

America's first secretary of treasury. This man established the first National Bank. Was the author of the economic policies of George Washington's Administration.

Jay's Treaty

Negotiation between U.S. and Britain that resolved many issues in the Treaty of Paris of 1783. Designed primarily by Alexander Hamilton. The British agreed to vacate six western forts by 1796 and compensate for American ship owners.

Society of the Cincinnati

Started by Major General Henry Knox. Historical, lineage organization with branches to the U.S and France. Most of the Americans ridiculed the lordly pretensions Continental Army officers who formed this.

Washington's Farewell

Letter given after his second term of presidency. Immediately reprinted in newspapers all over the United States in pamphlet form. Letter warned Americans about the political dangers they have to avoid to keep their values.

John Adams

He was a federalist. He remained neutral with France. When the U.S. is at peace, he lost popularity and lost his chance at a 2nd term.

Judiciary Act 1789

Congress decided to establish a system of federal trial courts with broader jurisdiction.Created 13 judicial districts within the 11 states that had then ratified the Constitution

Kentucky and Virginia Resolves

Political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799. This legislation took the position that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. These argued that the states had the right to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized

Pinckney Treaty 1795

Established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. Defined the boundaries of the Spanish Colonies and the United States. Also guaranteed the United States navigation rights of the Mississippi River.

XYZ Affair

John Adams sent 3 envoys to France. Approached by 3 agents who demanded a bribe to talk to Talleyrand. Angry Americans called for war but Adams remained neutral.

Convention 1800

Treaty between the United States and France. France agreed to end alliance with America. Americans pay the claims of shippers as alimony.

Feds vs Anti-Feds

The names of the groups that either opposed or supported the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government. One group applied to any person who supported the colonial union and the government formed under the Articles of Confederation. The other group co

Battle of Fallen Timbers

Final skirmish of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle for control of the Northwest Territory. This was a decisive victory for the United States. Ended major hostilities in the region until Tecumseh's War.

Bill of Rights

First ten amendments to the constitution. Granted rights to Americans, under the constitution. Was added to the constitution before the continental congress would ratify it.

Toussaint L'ouverture

He was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and political acumen led to the establishment of the independent black state of Haiti, transforming an entire society of slaves into
a free, self-governing people. The success of the Haitian

Marbury vs. Madison

This 1803 decision marked the first time the United States Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional. This was the case that established Judicial Review. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the separate executive and judic

Lewis and Clark

Went on an exploration called the corps of discovery. Traveled around the Louisiana purchase with the help of Indian guides. Sent new American species they discovered back to Jefferson in Washington.

Jeffersonian "Revolution of 1800

Democratic-republican party came into power and would remain so for many years. Their ideas varied greatly from the Federalists and their triumph marked a decline in Federalist power in office. Significant because the parties were switched through a peace

Non-Intercourse Act

This was passed after the Embargo Act was repealed. Response to British control over American trade. This reopened trade with every nation except France and Britain.

Embargo Act 1807

Forbade the export of all goods from the United States. Embodied Jefferson's idea of "peaceful cohesion." Was repealed on March 1, 1809.

Tripolitan War

War over payment for shipping access off the coast of this wars namesake, a country in North Africa. America had paid for access since 1784 and did not pay in 1801 which started the war, it lasted until 1805. Stephen Decatur lead a capture of Derma to end

Macon's Bill #2

A proposal to Britain and France to seek an end to the embargo. Stated that whoever took up the offer would stop seizing American ships and begin trading with the US again. Napoleon accepted right away, but of course went back on his part of the deal and

Justice Samuel Chase

A federalist South Carolinian who prosecuted people under the Sedition Act. House tried to impeach him for judicial misconduct. Was acquitted, setting the precedent that only criminal acts could lead to impeachment.

Chesapeake Affair

Inside US waters, the British ship Leopard fired on an American ship after it refused to be searched for deserters. The ship was then boarded and four men were seized.The US-British relationship worsened as a result of this event.

John Bull

A personification of England or the English. A typical Englishman. Originated from John Arbuthnot's "Law is a Bottomless Pitt.

Judiciary Act 1801

One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created sixteen new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. Jefferson said that the trickery of the Federalists was open defiance of the people's will.

Hamilton vs Burr Duel

Duel between two prominent politicians that ended fatally. Arose from long-standing political and personal bitterness that had developed between both men over a course of several years. Fought during a time when dueling was illegal.

Napoleon's Orders/British Orders

A series of decrees made by the Emperor of France and the King of England. Created policies of commercial warfare. Was a major cause of the war of 1812.

The War Hawks

Political term used to describe people who were in favor of the conflict with Britain in 1812. Consisted of Democratic-Republicans and were primarily in the south and western states. Term was originally coined by Virginia Congressman John Randolph.

2nd BUS

Gave easy loans to almost anybody that wanted them. Formed from the agreement between Madison and Congress. Last president of this was Nicholas Biddle

Tecumseh/Tenskwatawa

One of Madison's greatest challenges during his first term involving the growing Native American threat to American settlers in the west. They succeeded in creating a pan Indian alliance called the Northwest Confederacy. Their headquarters in Tippecanoe w

Tariff 1816

First in history designed to protect the industry. Raised the average rates to 20-25%. Part of Clay's American System.

Treaty of Ghent

Ended the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. This largely restored relations between the two countries. No loss of territory either way.

Panic 1819

This was the first major financial crisis in the United States. Occurred during the calm "Era of Good Feelings. Growth in trade from the War of 1812 came to an abrupt stop.

Hartford Convention

The most spectacular manifestation of Federalist discontent. Twenty-six men representing Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Vermont met in complete secrecy to discuss their grievances about the war of 1812 and to seek redress for

Daniel Webster

Joined forces with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun to pass a motion censoring Jackson for removing deposits from the Bank of the United States. The Whigs first emerged as an identifiable group in the senate because of him and attracted many other groups of

Rush-Bagot Agreement

A treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817. The treaty provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. the United States and Britain agreed to limit naval forces on the Great Lakes.

North American Review

The first literary magazine in the United States. Founded in Boston in 1815 by journalist Nathan Hale. It was published continuously until 1940, when publication was suspended due to J. H. Smyth, who had purchased the magazine, being unmasked as a Japanes

Henry Clay

He served three terms as Speaker of the House of the House of Representatives and was also a Secretary of State. He was a leader of the war hawks and he strongly favored war with Britain. Was involved in the "corrupt bargain" which made him Secretary of S

James Monroe

The last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty. His presidency was marked both by an "Era of Good Feelings" and by the Panic of 1819. President that presided over the Missouri Compromise

James Madison

After being Jefferson's secretary of state, this man became the fourth president of the United States. His term oversaw the War of 1812 against Britain, which was a political nightmare. After
seeing U.S. weaknesses in the war, this man began supporting a

American System

A program developed by Henry Clay in 1824 , this economic plan called for a strong national bank and a protective tariff. It also called for internal improvements of roads and canals to make transportation of crops and materials more efficient. Madison de

Oliver Hazard Perry

He served as a United States Navy Commodore in the War of 1812 against Britain. Earned the the title "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie. His efforts have been heavily memorized and many p

Missouri Compromise

An agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions of the United States Congress. Involved the regulation of slavery in the western hemisphere. Prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36'30' no

William Henry Harrison

Served as the first territorial delegate from the Northwest Territory, governor of the Indiana territory, and later as a U.S. representative and senator from Ohio. Was the first president to die in office. In the Battle of Tippecanoe he earned the nicknam

John Marshall

Was the Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835. His court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with other branches. He had previous

Battle of the Thames

Was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812. Resulted in the death of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh. Also lead to the destruction of the Native American coalition he led.

Era of Good Feelings

A period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and unity among Americans. The period is closely associated with Monroe's presidency. Coined by Benjamin Russell, in the Boston Federalist newspaper.

Battle of New Orleans

This was the final major conflict of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army. Their intent was to seize New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louis

John Q. Adams

The last Democratic-Republican president. Gained power from the "corrupt bargain" with Henry Clay. Was not re-elected.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Aimed to suppress the dregs of Europe by making it harder for them to vote. Anyone who spoke against the government was liable to a fine and imprisonment. Essentially got rid of the freedom to press and speech.

Steven Decatur

Fought in the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812. Youngest captain in the Us Navy's history. At one time, a prisoner of war in Bermuda.

corrupt bargain

Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams supposedly strike a deal. Adams is elected president and Clay is made Secretary of State. It ruined Adams chances of reelection.

John Q. Adams

The last Democratic Republican president. Gained power through the corrupt bargain. Was not reelected.

Election of 1828/Jacksonian Revolution

The Democratic Republicans lost to the democrats. A new democratic president who would eventually cause the formation of the Whig party came into office. Resulted in one dominant party.

Webster's Reply to Hayne

In a debate in 1830 about stopping the introduction of new land into the market.As a response, he showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself whch laws were unconstitutional, claiming that it would lea

Nicolas Biddle

President of the Bank of US. He was very autocratic and corrupt. Jackson, his enemy, took money from national banks and redistributed it into smaller pet banks.

Election 1832

Election between Democrat Andrew Jackson and Whig Henry Clay. Jackson was an idol of the masses and easily defeated Clay. This election was the first to involve effective national conventios and showed the emergence of the Anti-Masonic Party.

Martin Van Buren

Jackson's successor in the Election of 1836. Nicknamed the "Little Magician". Attempted to solve the Panic of 1837 through his controversial "Divorce Bill".

William Henry Harrison

Grandfather to Benjamin Harrison. Hero at the Battle of Tippecanoe was nicknamed after it. Died a month into office.

Election of 1840

Displayed two major shifts in American politics: triumph of populist democratic style and the formation of the two-party system. Race between Martin Van Buren, second term, and William Henry Harrison. Harrison won due to how Van Buren handled the Panic of

Election of 1824

This election was greatly influenced by the Missouri Compromise. Four candidates, John Q. Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, and Henry Clay, who entered the election on the American System platform, divided the country with their different views on

South Carolina Exposition and Protest

Written by John C. Calhoun in 1828, this pamphlet encouraged the nullification of the Tariff of Abominations. Calhoun argued that states could nullify any act of Congress they deemed unconstitutional because the states had created the central government a

Worchester vs. Georgia

After the Cherokee tribe in Georgia refused to comply with the Indian Removal Act of 1830, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in this case that Georgia could not force its laws on the independent Cherokee.

Maysville Road Veto

A road built within Kentucky that was considered an individual state road but was connected to an interstate. Andrew Jackson withheld funds from localized roads and vetoed a bill for improving this road. This was a great setback for the internal improveme

Anti-Masons

Supporters of a third political party that developed during the campaign of 1832 because of the fierce debate between Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. The party developed as opposition to secret societies and gained support from those who were neglected by

David Crockett

A famous rifleman who took the adventure to live in Texas. He fought at the Battle of the Alamo and was killed there.

Peggy Eaton Affair

Scandal involving members of Andrew Jackson's cabinet members. Involved a senator attempting to cover a friend's debts. This senator then married his friend's widow, creating much drama throughout the nation.

Denmark Vesey

African-American slave who organized a slave rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina in 1828. Plans for the rebellion were leaked, resulting in the failure of the rebellion. He was tried and executed soon after the rebellion.

Sam Houston

Tennessee senator during the 1820s who eventually led the Texas Rebellion. Was elected Texas governor twice. Major city in Texas is named after him.

Black Hawk War

Uprising led by a warrior in which native americans tried to reclaim their land in the Illinois territory. In this rebellion against the U.S., 200 Sauk and Fox people murdered. The war started in Illinois and spread to the Wisconsin territory; it ended in

Stephen Austin

This man was the original settler of Texas that granted land from Mexico on the condition of no slaves, they must be converted to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish. He led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 fam

Election of 1836

The Whigs tried to eat the Democrats' national organization with an array of sectional candidates, hoping to throw the election into the House of Representatives. This strategy ultimately failed. Martin van Buren, with significant support in every section

Whigs

Political party which rose out of opposition to the policies of Andrew Jackson during the 1830s. Advocated tariff protection, federally sponsored internal improvements, and the American System. Leading figures were Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.

Jefferson Day dinner

Incident in 1830 which raised tensions between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. Robert Hayne made a toast to states' rights, to which Jackson remarked in a booming voice, "Our federal Union: It must be preserved!". Caused by Jackson and Calhoun's disag

Specie Circular

Executive order issued by Andrew Jackson in order to curb excessive land speculation and stop the enormous growth of paper money in the economy. Required that payment for the purchase of public lands be made exclusively in gold or silver. Effecting mostly

Charles River Bridge Case

Supreme Court case in 1837 that dealt with a dispute of contracts between two companies. The Supreme Court eventually sided with the defendant. This case tainted the reputation of Supreme Court Justice Taney.

Dorr's Rebellion

Short-lived rebellion that occurred in Rhode Island in 1841 and 1842. It started because of state laws that were outdated and made over 60% of white males ineligible to vote. It was crushed by state-sponsored militia, however, it did succeed in pressuring

Independent Treasury Plan

Proposed during Van Buren's presidency and passed in 1840, but repealed when Whigs came into power in the next election. It stopped the problem of over speculation and expansion of false credit. It was reenacted in 1846 and existed to 1921.

Pre-emption Act

Approved in 1841 to appropriate the proceeds of the sales of public lands. Granted rights to squatters already living on federal land. Widely used in Kansas and Nebraska Territory.

Tariff of 1842

Clayites took out its dollar-distribution scheme. Pushed down rates to about the moderately protective level of 1832, roughly 32 percent on dutiable goods. Tyler did not want to sign it, but did seeing the need for additional revenue.

Spoils System

Rewards supporters with good positions in office denying many able people a chance to contribute. Jackson wanted young blood over experience during his presidency. Swarthout award post of collector of customs by Jackson and later stole a million dollars f

Kitchen Cabinet

Term used by political opponents of President Andrew Jackson to describe the collection of unofficial advisers he consulted. Jackson dismissed Calhoun's allies Samuel D. Ingham, John Branch, and John M. Berrien. Jackson's new members included his longtime

Tariff of Abominations

Passed by Congress in 1828 unexpectedly. Set duties on imported goods at nearly 50%. This was opposed by the southern states but generated large revenues that helped the government pay many of its debts.

Tariff of 1833

This was a compromise proposed by Henry Clay. Started after the Tariff of Abominations was strongly rejected by farmers in the south. Promises were made to slowly reduce the tariff to appease the threats of secession.

Johnny Appleseed

American pioneer nurseryman who introduced apples to large parts of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. He became an American legend while still alive. Largely because of his kind and generous way, his great leadership in conservation, and the symbolic importanc

Panic of 1837

One of its causes was the rampant over speculation prompted by the mania of get-rich-quickism in railroads, canals, and roads. Also caused by Jacksonian finance. Including the banking war and the specie circular.

Daniel Webster

One of the most famous orators and an influential Whig leader. A a spokesman for modernization, banking and industry, he was one of the nation's most prominent conservatives. As member of the Immortal Trio, he worked with John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay on

John C. Calhoun

Senator from South Carolina. Advocate for states rights and nullification. Rallied opposition against tariffs on manufactures and defense of slavery.

Mary Lyon

Established Mount Holyoke Seminary. Early woman's rights activist. One of the first Progressive women's education advocates.

Journalistic Giants

Included Washington Irving, the author of Rip van Winkle, and the Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Included James Fenimore Cooper, author of the Last of the Mohicans. Included William Cullen Bryant, who wrote Thanatopsis

the 48er's

A large group of German immigrants who arrived in a America between 1830 and 1860. They mainly consisted of uprooted farmers. Many were liberals who opposed slavery.

The Second Great Awakening

A religious revival that happened in America in the mid 1800's. Characterized by groups of traveling speakers and preachers who would lead religious revivals in towns across the country. Was used to promote reform of all kinds, the most prevalent was the

The Changing Family

Couples were having fewer kids since they did not need as many. They lived in small apartments in the city instead of on big farmland. A result of much urban growth.

Clinton's Big Ditch

AKA The Erie canal. Its construction was led by Governor DeWitt Clinton. It went from Lake Erie to Hudson River, and resulted in a dramatic decrease of shipping cost and transit time.

William Lloyd Garrison

Created The Liberator. Was a product of the Second Great Awakening. Started a thirty year war of words before the Civil War over slavery.

Frederick Douglas

He was the greatest of the black abolitionists. Wrote an autobiography. Was a runaway slave who educated himself.

Theodore Weld

An evangelist and an abolitionist who was self-educated. He and his followers preached across the Old Northwest. Wrote American Slavery as It Is, a propaganda pamphlet.

Gabriel Prosser Slave Revolt

Led by a literate enslaved blacksmith. Information regarding this event was leaked and it never ended up happening. Caused laws to be passed that restricted free blacks.

David Walker

Black abolitionist. He became a living monument to African American freedom
He wrote "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the Word" and advocated a bloody end to white supremacy.

Dorothea Dix

New England Teacher-author who traveled 60,000 miles in 8 years and wrote reports on insanity and asylums from observations. Her petition of 1843 to Massachusetts legislature described cells so foul it turned the stomachs and hearts of legislatures. Resul

American Artists

Worked with the Romantic Movement and sought to create unique aesthetic forms. Folk art attained popularity as did landscape paintings by Luminists and the Hudson River School.

Edgar Allen Poe

Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Wrote in Gothic and Romantic ways that were very unique in the way they revealed themes and dark images. Wrote The Raven, The Cask of Amontillado, and the Fall of the House of Usher.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Wrote in dark romantic style, his themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. Most of his works influenced by Puritan New England, when religion was law and imagi

Herman Melville

Dark Romanticism and Skepticism were among his writing styles. Wrote with a underlying theme about gender roles and equality as most of his works were male dominated, with women who challenge those men. Works included Typee, Omoo, and Moby-Dick.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

One of the five group of poets that people read to their families by the fire, hence their name, The Fireside Poets. Work categorized as lyrical poetry but he also used hexameter and free verse as his main source of writing. Works included Nature, The Tid

John Greenleaf Whittier

A fighting quaker and uncrowned poet of the Antislavery crusade. Less talented as a writer than Longfellow but was more important in influencing social actions. His poems cried out against inhumanity, injustice, and intolerance.

J. R. Lowell

Member of the Fireside Poets. Founder of The Pioneer and became editor of The Atlantic Monthly. Involved in the movement to abolish slavery, where he used poetry to express his anti-slavery views

Oliver Wendell Holmes

Taught anatomy at Harvard. Was a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, and lecturer. A nonconformist and conversationalist. His poem "The Last Leaf" , in honor of the last white Indian for the Boston Tea Party, applied to himself.

American Historians

George Bancroft published a super patriotic history of the United States in 6 volumes. William Prescott published classic accounts of the Conquest of Mexico and Peru. Francis Parkman chronicled the struggle between France and Britain in the colonial times

The Knickerbocker Group

Consisted of American literary pioneers Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant. Included many prominent authors. Named after one of Irving's famous works.

John Tyler

He opposed the Whig platform and vetoed several of their proposals. As a result, most of his cabinet resigned, and the Whigs, dubbing him His Accidency, expelled him from the party. He was a democrat at heart even though he served on a whig ticket. He hel

James Polk

His goals were :a lowered tariff, restoration of the independent treasury, and the acquisition of California and Oregon.He was president during the Mexican-American War. Manifest Destiny was a strong idea in his views as president.

Zachary Taylor

United States military leader who was originally uninterested in politics yet ran in the Whig party in the election of 1848. Nicknames "Old Rough and Ready" and the last US president who owned slaves. Assassinated just 16 months into his term in office.

Copperheads

A vocal group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War and sympathized with the South.They undermined the war effort and posed a threat to Lincoln's reelection. "Peace Democrats" who supported the war to save the Union.

George McClellan

A major general during the American Civil War. He ran against Abraham Lincoln as a "Copperhead" or "Peace Democrat" in the 1864 Presidential Election. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly as the general-in-chief of the Union Army

Antietam

Pivotal point in the war for the North that Lincoln used to launch the Emancipation Proclamation. This victory made sure that France and Britain would not support the South through arms or money. The Battle that drove the Southern Army back from Maryland.

Seward's Folly

Lincoln's Secretary of State purchased Alaska in 1867 for $7.2 million. He was ridiculed because people didn't believe there was anything useful there. Later Alaska was discovered to contain oil and gold, making the purchase a huge bargain.

John C. Fremont

First candidate of the Republican Party that was against slavery. During the 1840's he was known as the pathfinder. He was a senator from California.

Dred Scott

He was a black slave in the United States. Sued for his freedom in 1857 against Sandford. The court concluded that African Americans could not sue in the U.S. or claim citizenship.

Franklin Pierce

Weak and indecisive president. He was big on the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law. Ostend Manifesto created under his power.

Ostend Manifesto

Took place when the U.S. offered Spain 120 million dollars for Cuba. Threatened to take Cuba by force if Spain declined the offer. Made some people (especially the northern free soilers) angry.

Tenure of Office Act

Passed by congress in 1867 over Johnson's veto. Required the president to secure the consent of the Senate before he could dismiss any of his Senators. Johnson ignored this act by dismissing his secretary of war and was almost impeached in 1868.

Ex Parte Milligan Case

1866 case ruled that the military could not try civilians, even during wartime, in areas where the civil courts were open. This case was brought up during military reconstruction in the south when Democrats argued that using military rule in peacetime was

Crittenden Compromise

Compromise between the Unionist and secessionists states. Stated that all states south of the 36030 line would be federally protected and could continue slavery, while north of the line wouldn't have slavery. Opposed by Lincoln.

Trent Affair

International diplomatic incident that occurred during the Civil War. Union warship stopped a British steamer. Removed 2 confederate diplomats that were bound for Great Britain and France to press the Confederacy's case for diplomatic recognition by Europ

Jefferson Davis/Alexander Stevens

First and only President of the Confederate States of America. Was never really popular and overworked himself. The Vice President of the Confederacy who was elected as a delegate to the Georgia special convention to decide on secession and called for the

Harpers Ferry

This was an important industrial city during the 1850s and 1860s. Its location on the Potomac River upstream from Washington City made it strategic, and waterpower made it important for manufacturing (largest industry was arms manufacture for the military

Robert E. Lee

He was a military officer from virginia, for the Confederacy. He defeated General John Pope at the second battle of Bull Run. General Grant decimated his army at the battle of Gettysburg.

Elizabeth Blackwell

Was the first woman to receive a medical degree. Worked with Dorothea Dix to train nurses for the Union army. Met some resistance from the male dominated United States Sanitary Commission.

Panic of 1857

Was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy. During the presidency of James Buchanan who tried to stop the inflation by calling on state banks to follow the federal go

Morrill Act

Passed to raise additional revenue and partly provide more protection for the prosperous manufacturers who were being plucked by the new internal taxes. Raised the rates 5 to 10 percent to the Walker Tariff of 1846. This signified a protective Tariff iden

William Seward

Former governor of New York and U.S. senator. Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Engineered the Alaska purchase from Russia.

Stonewall Jackson

A confederate general during the American Civil War. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. He got shot at the Battle of Chancellorsville but died

Emancipation Proclamation

An executive order issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863. Only stated that 3.1 million of the 4 million slaves in America were free. It solidified Lincoln's support among the abolitionists during the Civil War.

William T. Sherman

Known as the pioneer of "total war". He marched through Georgia and destroyed it, burning down buildings and tearing up railroads. After making it through Georgia he stormed his men through South Carolina and burned down the capital city.

Andrew Johnson

Vice President to Lincoln during his second term, and later took his place after his assassination. Added to Lincoln's original 10% plan, making a thirteenth amendment necessary for readmission into the Union. Was known as "Sir Veto" due to his use of the

Black Codes

Southern laws created after US Civil War. Designed to restrict the rights of newly freed slaves. Had their roots in the slave codes that had formerly been in effect.

Thaddeus Stevens

Man behind the 14th amendment. Led the Radical Republicans in Congress. Believed in harsh punishments for the South.

KKK

Founded in Tennessee, this was a group composed of whites from the Deep South. They aimed to terrorize blacks away from voting and to "keep them in their place". Congress passed the Force Acts of 1870/1 in attempt to stop the open disregard this group had

Freedman's Bureau

Provided food, clothing, and education to white refugees. Founded by General Oliver O. Howard. Taught 200,000 blacks to read.

Wade-Davis Bill

Program introduced for the Reconstruction of the south written by radical Republicans. This was a response to Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. Passed both houses of Congress but was vetoed by Lincoln and never took affect

Carpetbaggers & Scalawags

One group saw Reconstruction as a political and economic opportunity. The other group sympathized with the reconstruction effort and wanted to see a new South emerge from the rubble. One of the groups was composed of white northerners and the other was co

Harriet Beecher Stowe

A female abolitionist. Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. Lincoln called her the woman who wrote the book who started the civil war.

Hinton Helper

Southern critic of slavery. Wrote The Impeding Crisis of the South. Argued that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non slaveholders.

John Brown

A radical American abolitionist. Led the Pottawatomie Massacre, at Bleeding Kansas, and led the unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry. Was executed for treason after the raid at Harpers Ferry.

Brooks vs. Sumner

A Democratic Congressman from South Carolina beat and severely injured a Republican from Massachusetts with his cane. The Republican congressman insulted the democrats cousin, Senator Andrew Butler, in his speech, causing the dispute to occur. This event

Lincoln/Douglas Debates

A series of seven public discussions between two candidates of the 1858 Illinois Senatorial campaign. The two candidates argued the important issues of the day, mainly popular sovereignty and the Lecompton Constitution. These discussions eventually allowe

Lecompton Constitution

The 1857 pro-slavery legislation in Kansas that was supported by Buchanan but opposed by free-soilers. Voters could pass it with or without slavery, but slave owners would have been protected slave owners even if this legislation was passed without slaver

Zachary Taylor

United States military leader who was originally uninterested in politics yet ran in the Whig party in the election of 1848. Nicknames "Old Rough and Ready" and the last US president who owned slaves. Assassinated just 16 months into his term in office.

Harriet Tubman

A female and African-American abolitionist during the Civil War. Conductor of the Underground Railroad who rescued hundreds of slaves. She helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage

Wilmot Proviso

Regarding the land gained from the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This bill prohibited slavery in any of the territories. Southern Senators prevented this bill from passing in order to keep possibilities of new slaves states.

Kansas Nebraska Act

Split the two territories above the 36 - 30 line. The slavery status would then be decided by popular sovereignty. Heavily conflicted with the Missouri Compromise.

Webster's 7th of March Speech

Given by Daniel Webster. Supported the Compromise of 1850. Attacked by abolitionists who felt betrayed by these compromises.

Caroline and Creole Incidents

Events that fueled America's hatred toward Britain in 1837. An American steamer carrying supplies in the North was attacked by a British force. Four years later, British officials offered asylum to revolting slaves to further intensify tensions.

Webster Ashburton Treaty

Document signed to end border disputes between the USA and British Canada. Resolved the issue of the Maine-New Brunswick border. Agreed to shared use of the Great Lakes.

Nicholas Trist

Polk sent him to negotiate armistice with Mexico. Negotiated $10,000 with Santa Ana and took bribe. Also negotiated Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Overseen and signed by American diplomat Nicholas Trist; ended the Mexican-American War; gave the United States control of the Mexican Cession which included the Western states of Texas, California, Utah and Nevada among other territories.

John Slidell

American minister to Mexico in 1845; instructed to offer Mexico $25 million for the Western territories later known to be the Mexican Cession; refusal of his negotiations lead to the Mexican-American War.

spot resolutions

Proposed by Abraham Lincoln in 1846; sought to find out exact locations where blood had been spilled following debate over where Mexican-American struggles were occurring; later revealed that fighting took place on Mexican soil, affirming the suspected Am

Compromise of 1850

California was admitted as a free state and the territories of New Mexico and Utah were open to slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty. Thus, the Senate was unbalanced in favor of the North. Drafted by Whig Senator Henry Clay.

Millard Fillmore

The last member of the Whig Party to hold the office of president. Came into office after his predecessor's death. signed the Compromise of 1850 alongside other compromises.

Gadsden Purchase

Land bought from Mexico after the Mexican American War. Parts of present day Arizona and New Mexico. Bought for flat land to construct a railroad.

Stephen Douglass

Illinois politician who beat Abraham Lincoln in a senate race after a series of debates with him. Strong supporter of popular sovereignty and the Kansas Nebraska Act. Ran as a democrat for presidency in 1860 but lost to Lincoln.

Aroostook War

Undeclared non-violent confrontation in 1839. Between U.S. and Britain over boundary between Canada and Maine. Van Buren sent Winfield Scott to work out a compromise.

Rutherford B. Hayes

Republic president sworn into office by the Compromise of 1877. Oversaw the end of Reconstruction and the United States' entry into the Second Industrial Revolution. Dealt with the Great Railroad Strike of 1887 by sending in federal troops to end the unre

Chester Arthur

Became President after the assassination of his predecessor. His advocacy for the Pendleton Act was the centerpiece of his administration. Originated as a member of the New York political machine run by Senator Roscoe Conkling.

James Garfield

Republican president who won the Election of 1880. Appointed Blaine to be the secretary of made and made anti-Stalwart acts. He was shot and killed during his first year in presidency.

Election 1884

Blaine was the Republican candidate and Cleveland was the Democratic candidate. Consisted of intense mudslinging and personal insulting. Mugwumps disliked Blaine and threw their support behind Cleveland.

Grover Cleveland

Defeated James G. Blaine in 1884. Attempted to lower tariffs, which went against his party's campaign. Unsuccessfully battled the Panic of 1893.

Benjamin Harrison

Grandson of William Henry Harrison. Signed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Sherman Anti-Trust Act, and Mckinley Tariff in 1890. Ousted in 1892 by Cleveland.

Pendleton Act

It prohibited financials assessments on jobholders. It created a merit system of making appointments to government jobs on the basis of aptitude rather than the spoils system. The people were forced under this law to take an exam before being hired to a g

Era of Good Stealings

It is the title given to the corruption that occurred during Grant's term as president. Numerous politicians concocted various scams in order to steal money during this time period.

Liberal Republican Revolt 1872

The Liberal Republican Party was formed from disgust of political corruption and military Reconstruction. Nominated Horace Greeley for president who was endorsed by the Democrats in the election of 1872. The Liberal Republicans caused Congress to pass an

Resumption Act 1875

Stated that the government would continue to remove paper money from circulation and redeem all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879.

Bland Allison Act 1878

Caused by the Panic of 1873 and lack of monetary funds. Called for the use of a bimetallic (gold and silver) monetary system in order to solve the economic issue. Vetoed by President Hayes but over-rode by Congress.

Stalwarts vs. Halfbreeds

Dueling factions within the Republican Party after Reconstruction. The more conservatives were led by Roscoe Conkling. The moderates were led by Senator James Blaine.

Hayes/Tilden Election

Democrat candidate won the popular vote, but was 1 vote shy from winning the Electoral College. This ended the era of Reconstruction. The Republican candidate became president due to a compromise.

Compromise of 1877

Democrats ceded the presidency to the Republicans in exchange for an end to Reconstruction in the South. Samuel J. Tilden lost, and Rutherford B. Hayes became president. This agreement ended the disputed election of 1876.

James Fisk/Jay Gould

Two millionaire partners who were notorious in the financial world during the Gilded Age. Concocted a plot in 1869 to corner the gold market. Failed because the federal Treasury was forced to begin selling gold.

Tammany Hall

Political machine located in New York that was strongest during the 1860s. It worked by helping the new immigrants when they came into the country in exchange for their loyalty in election.s. The corruption was exposed by the New York Times and Thomas Nas

W. Tweed

Leader of Tammany Hall and the New York Political machine during the 1860s. Used his access to state and especially city governments to get money for himself and his friends. His corruption was uncovered by Thomas Nast in the Harper's Weekly.

Big Four (Rail Roads)

Consisted of the following men: Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, James Hill, and Cornelius Vanderbilt. They were the chief financial backers of major projects to connect the East and West with railroads. The public did not like the men because of their

Election of 1892

Grover Cleveland won in this election against Republican Benjamin Harrison and Populist James Weaver. The main issue was on the McKinley Tariff which Harrison supported. with control of both houses and the presidency it was the first major Democratic poli

The New Immigration

By 1880s and 1990s, shift from literate British Isles and western Europe. Became Baltic and Slavic from southeastern Europe. Lower literacy rate and not accustomed to representative government.

Mary Baker Eddy

Founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science). Preached a perversion of Christianity that she claimed healed sickness. Set forth views in a book called Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.

Booker T. Washington

Called in 1881 to head the black mormon and industrial school at tuskegee, Alabama. He began with forty students, teaching useful trades. Avoided the issue of social equality.

W.E.B. DuBois

Earned a Ph.D. at Harvard. Demanded social and economic equality for blacks. Helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.

The New Morality

Described the culture of the 1920s. Emphasized personal freedom. Contributed to the "flaming youth".

Social Darwinism

Used scientific theory to describe society. Used idea of the survival of the fittest. Attempted to explain distribution of wealth.

Gospel of Wealth

Stated that the wealthy were destined to be wealthy. Stated that the poor were poor because they were lazy and lacking in enterprise. This philosophy was the main principle behind Reverend Russel Conwell's speech "Acres of Diamonds

Joseph Pulitzer/William R. Hearst

These two men were the pioneers behind "yellow journalism". Were experts in writing about scandal and sensational rumor. Were behind Newspapers such as New York World and San Francisco Examiner.

The Long Drive

Beginning in 1866, cowboys drove herds of cattle to graze the plains. Gradually, however, the westward spread of homestead settlements pushed the trails farther west. By 1890, this method of raising livestock was put to an end by fences and railroads.

Homestead Act 1862

Piece of legislation that gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years, improve it, and pay a small fee. Turned out to be a hoax because the land given had terrible soil and bad weather plagued the area.

'Safety Valve Theory'

Stated that when hard times came, the unemployed could migrate West and be prosperous farmers. Few city dwellers actually left the East for the West. However, the cities turned out to be the place where Easterners could travel and become prosperous.

Frederick Jackson Turner/Turner Thesis

The idea that American character was derived from the American frontier. Explained why the American people, people of European descent, were so different both socially and politically. The same idea of finding new American frontiers to help shape the Amer

Mary E. Lease

She believed that big business had made the people into "wage slaves" and the government was run by Wall Street and Wall Street alone. Wrote The Problem of Civilization Solved. Major advocate for the Populist party as well as the suffrage and temperance m

Patrons of Husbandry

Lead by Oliver H. Kelley, this organization initially helped improve lives of isolated farmers through social activities, then changed its goals to improve the collective situations of farmers. Claimed over 800,000 members in 1875. It managed to get Congr

Helen Hunt Jackson

A writer and author who published A Century of Dishonor in 1881, which told of the record of government ruthlessness in dealing with the Indians. She also wrote Romona in 1884 which told of injustice to the California Indians. Her books exposed the U.S> g

William Hope Harvey

Wrote Coin's Financial School in 1894. Also known as the "little professor". Made brilliant arguments form free silver.

Dawes Act

Passed in 1887. Dissolved Indian entitlements to land. If Indians behaved like white people, they could gain citizenship in 20 years under this legislation.

Benjamin Harrison

Republican elected in 1888. Defeated Grover Cleveland in 1888 and lost to him in 1892. Democrats attacked his "Billion Dollar Congress".

Thomas 'Czar' Reed

Speaker of the House of Representatives during Cleveland's presidency. Opened the 51st, or Billion Dollar Congress. Helped legislate many expensive projects in new Congress.

Silver Purchase Act

This was created by Benjamin Harrison's administration to increase the amount of silver in circulation. So, they required the government to increase their purchasing of silver every month. The public believed that the increase of silver was going to repla

McKinley Tariff

This raised tariffs yet again and brought more troubles to farmers. Farmers were forced to buy expensive products from American manufacturers while selling their own products into the highly competitive world markets. This led to the Republicans to lose p

Mark Hanna

Campaign manager and funder for McKinley during the 1896 and 1900 elections. Was pro-big business, which helped McKinley gain lots of Eastern support. Strongly supported the McKinley Tariff.

William Jennings Bryan

He greatly influenced and led the progressive movement to help enact the 18th amendment. His goal of "free silver" won him the support of the Populist party in the election of 1896 and 1900. He later prosecuted John T. Scopes for teaching evolution in a h

Hicks v. Hofstadter

Had differing opinions on the Populist movement of the late 19th/early 20th century. The first wrote The Populist Revolt (1931), portraying the Populists as simple honest farmers valiantly fighting against the oppression of Wall Street and robber barons.

Election of 1892

The Populist Party nominated General james B. Weaver, the fell short of winning the election because they depended on black votes on the South (unfortunately, Southern black were denied the right to vote due to literacy tests). Republicans nominated Benja

Alfred T. Mahan

Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. Argued that every successful world power once held a great navy. Helped start a naval race among the great powers and moved the U.S. to naval supremacy.

Josiah Strong/Alfred Mahan

These two writers both helped influence America to focus its attention overseas. His book, Our Country: Its Possible Future and its Present Crisis inspired missionaries to look overseas for new souls to convert. He trumpeted the superiority of Anglo-Saxon

William Randolph Hearst/Joseph Pulitzer

Famous writers in the yellow press, these two writers constantly attempted to outdo each other with new headlines. This yellow press writer sent Frederic Remington to cuba to draw with the admonition:" You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."Th

George Dewey

Naval officer who defeated the Spanish fleet in a surprise attack on Manila Bay (in the Philippines). He did not lose a single man at this battle. This battle was specifically in the Spanish-American War.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Philippine general during the Philippine � American War. His main tactic was to use guerrilla warfare. He thought helping the US would grant his people independance, but sadly that was not true, as he was captured by the United States in 1901. Assimilatio

Teller Amendment

This was the United States promise not to annex Cuba. Signed by President McKinley, This was also used as an ultimatum to Spain. Another reason the US did not want to annex Cuba was to eliminate the competition in sugar production.

Platt Amendment

Part of the joint resolution, which replaces a similar amendment. This Amendment was a promise from the United States which stated that they would pull troops out of Cuba after the SPanish � American War. Also known as the Cuban Constitution.

Monroe Doctrine

A policy introduced by the president in 1823. Stated that further attempts to colonize the United States would be seen as an act of aggression. Also noted that American troops would not interfere with any existing European colonies.

Open Door Policy

Stated that China should be open to all nations for trade. Did not include the consent of the Chinese people, and was therefore a form of imperialism. Introduced because of fear of the spheres of influence of Russia and Britain.

Teddy Roosevelt

Republican president known for: conservatism, trust-busting, "big stick" policy, regulating industry to help consumers, and Square Deal. After splitting with his successor Taft, he ran for president in 1912 on the Progressive Party ticket. He also won the

The Roosevelt Corollary

Another addition to the Monroe Doctrine. States that the United States will intervene in any conflict between European Nations and Latin American countries. Was used to enforce legitimate claims of the European countries.

Treaty of Portsmouth

This ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half o

The Insular Cases

A series of cases to decide which American laws extended to new territories annexed by the U.S.(specifically Puerto Rico and the Philippines). Supreme court decided that although Puerto Ricans and Filipinos might be subject to American rule, they did do r

Drago Doctrine

Stated that no foreign power including the U.S. could use force to collect debt against any American nation. This extended the Monroe Doctrine. Later replaced by the Roosevelt Corollary.

Theodore Roosevelt

Ran in a third party in the Election of 1912. Major nature lover and conservationist. Extremely egotistical and manly in personality.

Dollar Diplomacy

Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests. It was intended to make allies as well as easy money for American investor. An attempt to convince smaller developing nations to support the US by investing money into their eco

Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform that sought to regulate big business, protect consumers, and conserve the nation's natural resources. A domestic program aimed at helping the middle class and attacking the country's bad trusts. One of Roosevelt's many

Initiative

The process of petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the Populist Party's platform in 1891, along with referendum and recall. These all intended to allow people to make political decisions rather than the legislature.

Referendum

The process of citizens voting on laws instead of the state or national governments. This originated as a Populist reform in the populist party. Was picked up by the progressive reform movement.

Recall

One of the major electoral reforms advocated by leaders of the Progressive movement. Procedure by which voters can remove an elected local official from office through a direct vote before his term has ended. Is initiated when sufficient voters sign a pet

Henry Demarest Lloyd

He exposed the corruption of the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company. Wrote the book Wealth Against Commonwealth. American progressive political activist and muckraking journalist.

Reform Amendments (16-19)

Progressive changes to the constitution. Called for a direct election of senators, federal income tax, prohibition of alcohol, and women's suffrage. Under the presidency of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson.

Jacob Riis

A Muckraking journalist. Used his photography for social reform. Wrote How the Other Half Lives which described the dark and dirty slums of New York.

Elkins Act

Amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. Did not allow railroad rebates. Sponsored by Roosevelt in his "Square Deal".

Ida Tarbell

Muckraking woman journalist. Wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company. Caused reform and the breakup of the Standard Oil Company.

Hepburn Act

Railroad Legislation. Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the ability to set maximum railroad rates. Made it so there are no free passes given to loyal railroad customers.

Lincoln Steffens

He was an American journalist and famous muckraker. He was editor of McClure's magazine. He wrote "The Shame of the Cities.

Northern Securities Case

Caused by an appeal by the railroads in 1904. Upheld Roosevelt's antitrust suit. Angered the railroads and big business.

David Phillips

Had a series in the Cosmopolitan. Titled "The Treason of the senate". Charged seventy-five of the ninety senators and said they did not represent the people at all but the railroads and trusts.

Meat Inspection Act

Brought into action partly by Sinclair's novel "The Jungle." Meat is subject to federal inspection. Although the largest packers resisted certain features of it, they accepted it as an opportunity to drive their smaller fly-by-night competitors out of bus

Robert M. La Follete

Progressive republican governor and later senator from Wisconsin. Progressive presidential candidate in 1924 where he fought for women's' suffrage and opposed trusts. Nicknamed "Fighting Bob

Pure Food and Drug Act

Law passed in 1906 that allowed federal inspection of meat and the labeling of drugs. Passed on the same day as the meat inspection act. Directly lead to the formation of the food and drug administration.

Hiram Johnson

Progressive republican governor and later senator from California. Known for saying "the first casualty of war is the truth" about US involvement in WWI. One of the irreconcilables who opposed the league of nations.

Newlands Reclamation Act

Government sold the dry western land to collect money. Used collected money in order to pay for the irrigation projects to produce better land. Settlers then paid off the reclamation which cycled the money.

Charles Evans Hughes

Republican governor of New York. Gained fame as an investigator of malpractices from gas and insurance companies. Republican candidate in election of 1916, lost to Wilson.

Payne-Aldrich Act

Taft signed it, which betrayed his campaign promises and enrage his progressive side of the party. Lowered the protective tariff. Taft proclaimed it as "the best bill that the Republican ever passed.

Francis Willard

Women's suffragist whose influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Amendments. The national president of the World Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Championed unions and the eight-hour work day as well as women's and ch

Ballinger-Pinchot Affair

Taft's Secretary of Interior opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska for use against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Taft's Chief of Forestry supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss the secretary of interior, but

Upton Sinclair

Acquired particular fame for his classic muckraking novel, The Jungle. He exposed conditions in the U.S. meatpacking industry. He caused a public uproar that contributed to the passage of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.

William Taft

Republican president that alienated himself from the progressive Republicans after mishandling the Payne-Aldrich Tariff and Ballinger-Pinchot Affair. Was famous for his Dollar Diplomacy, and expanded national forest reserves. His former ally and boss, TR,

Election of 1912

Taft wins Republican nomination over Roosevelt. Roosevelt served as the Progressive candidate. Democratic Wilson wins as a minority president.

Woodrow Wilson

Campaign slogan was "He kept us out of War." Writer of the 14 Points. Proponent of "New Freedom

New Freedom

Wilson's campaign platform for the 1912 election. Called to attack the "Triple wall of Privilege" the tariff, the banks and the trusts. It favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and non-monopolized markets.

New Nationalism

Theodore Roosevelt's campaign platform for the 1912 election. Was Roosevelt's reaction to Wilson's "New Freedom." Was strongly influenced by Herbert Croly's book: The Promise of American Life.

Herbert Croly

An intellectual leader of the Progressive Movement as an editor, political philosopher and a co-founder of the magazine The New Republic. He stated that the government should control the bad trusts, leaving the good trusts alone and free to operate. Expla

Underwood Tariff

This was passed by Wilson for a substantial reduction of the tariff by almost 15%. It established a graduated income tax following the passing of the 16th Amendment. It charged American manufacturers who wanted to sell their goods overseas and required ba

Eugene V. Debs

Was an industrial labor union leader of IWW. He was convicted under the sedition for his support of Socialism. He ran against Wilson as a candidate for the Socialist Party in 1912.

Federal Reserve Act

The most important economic legislature between the Civil War and the New Deal. Put a decentralized bank in the government's hands that could increase money circulation and issue more paper money. Nationwide system of 12 regional reserve districts, each w

Louis D. Brandeis

He was Woodrow Wilson's attorney. He was the attorney who persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by providing evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on female bodies in the Miller v. Oregon c

Federal Trade Commission

One of Woodrow Wilson's major trust busting agencies during the Progressive Era. It promoted consumer protection. Commissioners had the power to search industries and crush monopolies at the source.

Venustiano Carranza

President of Mexico from 1914-1920. Against Huerta who had been put in power by revolutionaries in 1913. Was outraged by the number of troops sent to Mexico by President Wilson.

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

This extended the Sherman Anti-Trust Act remedying its deficiencies. It weakened monopolies. Upheld the rights of labor unions and farm organizations.

Pancho Villa

Mexican bandit who was given munitions by Wilson to fight Huerta's government. Was against President Carranza. Ordered an attack on an American train full of minors, 16 were killed though he said he did not authorize bloodshed.

Jones Act

This act granted the Philippines territorial status. Promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established. Aimed at providing the Filipino people broader domestic autonomy though it reserved certain privileges to the US.

John J. Pershing

A general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. Wilson ordered him and an expeditionary force of about 15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Francisco "Pancho" Villa dead or alive. He urged the U.S. g

Lusitania

The British passenger liner sunk by German submarines under the justification that there was ammo on board. Of the 2000 lives lost, 128 were Americans. Caused an uproar in the country, especially in the East.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

To Americans, seemed to "embody arrogant autocracy". Under him, Germany led an attack on the neutral Belgium and was hostile at American ports. A German left a case of sabotage plans on a subway car in New York, further inflaming the American's opinion of

Sussex Pledge

Promise made in 1916 during WWI by Germany to the US. Agreement for Germany not to sink American ships without warning, so long as the U.S. could get the British to stop their blockade. Prompted when a French ship was torpedoed without warning.

New Nationalism

The Progressive policy of Theodore Roosevelt's 1912 party platform. It favored a more active government role in economic and social affairs and continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions and the growth of powerful regulatory agencies in Washington

Gavrilo Princip

Assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria. Member of the Black Hand. Set off a chain reaction of events that lead to WWI.

14 Points

A "peace plan" introduced by Wilson in 1918 at the Paris Peace Conference. Each point appealed to a specific group in the war, and the overall purpose was to prevent future wars. the only part of this plan that was used was the establishment of a League o

Von Schlieffen Plan

Germany's strategy to avoid fighting a two front war. In this plan, Germany would quickly defeat France in the West and then move the troops on to Russia in the East. This plan failed because Russia mobilized its army much quicker than the Germans had pla

League of Nations

An international organization that aimed to set peace and settle world disputes. Its goal was to protect countries' political independence and territorial integrity. This was founded in 1919 to promote world cooperation, but greatly weakened by the refusa

George Creel

Journalist who produced propaganda in favor of war effort. Headed the Committee on Public Information. Largely associated with propaganda, was known to have said "expression not repression" about censorship.

Espionage and Sedition Acts

Two laws passed after WWI. First prohibited any attempt to interfere military operations. The second piece of legislation extended the first to more broader range of offenses.

Bernard Baruch

Was an American financier, stock-market speculator, salesman, and political consultant. Became a presidential advisor. Advised the presidency of Woodrow Wilson and FDR.

War Industries Board

Weak federal agency designed to organize and coordinate U.S. industrial production for the war effort. Created in July 1917 and controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations. It was intended to restore economic order and to make sure t

Marshal Foch

United the allied armies in World War I. Until his supreme command the Allies and be fighting imperfectly. French marshal whose axiom was, "To make war is to attack".

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

Nicknamed the "wobblies" and the "I won't work". Engineered some of the most damaging industrial sabotage. Were victims of some of the shabbiest working conditions in the country.

Henry Cabot Lodge

A critic to President Wilson. He came up with fourteen reservations to the Treaty of Versailles. Leader of the "reservationists.

Food Administration

Led by Herbert Hoover. It was set up to ensure food supplies reached the soldiers in World War I. Encouraged people to voluntarily sacrifice some of their own goods for the war.

Warren G. Harding

U.S. Republican President. He promised a return to normalcy. Defeated James Cox in the election of 1920.

Bolshevik Revolution

Helped bring about the Red Scare in America. This was a political revolution in Russia. Led to the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

James M. Cox

Former governor of Ohio as well as Democratic candidate in the election of 1920. His running mate was Franklin D. Roosevelt. His platform: support for a League of Nations, but not necessarily the League of Nations.

The Big Four

The four main Allied leaders of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference after WWI. They were Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Vittorio Orlando.

Normalcy

Warren G. Harding promised this to his people after the war. Was a Promise to return to how it was before. Ironic because the new era was hardly normal at all.

Treaty of Versailles

Peace treaty that ended the Great War. Woodrow Wilson, Clemensceau, and David lloyd George were present. Despite Germany's objection that the treaty would destroy its economy, the settlement required the following stipulations of Germany: accept full resp

Zimmerman Note

German message to Mexico about allying with them. Mexico would regain all territory lost in the Mexican American War. Telegram intercepted.

Irreconcilables/Reservationists

Were bitter opponents of the Treaty of Versailles in the United States in 1919. The term refers to about 12 to 18 United States senators, both Republican and Democrat, who fought to defeat the ratification of the treaty by the Senate. They succeeded and t

Mitchell Palmer

U.S. attorney general who prosecuted un american and socialistic suspects; contributed to the "Red Scare" in America; nicknamed "The Fighting Quaker" and, later, "The Quaking Fighter".

John Dewey

Professor of Columbia University from 1904-1930. A philosopher who set forth principles of "learning by doing" which set up Progressive education. Believed that teachers should teach in order for people to receive an "education for life".

John T. Scopes

A high school teacher in Tennessee who was tried for teaching evolution. The trial was known as the "Monkey Trial" and took place in 1925. Represented the Modernist vs. the Fundamentalist struggle in America at the time.

William Jennings Bryan

Tried John T. Scopes for teaching Evolution in high schools. A former presidential candidate and a Presbyterian Fundamentalist. Was made to look foolish at the trials by Clarence Darrow and died from a stroke 5 days after the trial ended.

Clarence Darrow

Criminal lawyer who went against William Jennings Bryan in the Scopes "Monkey Trial." Defended John T. Scopes and made Bryan appear foolish while questioning him about the Bible. Although he was an expert attorney, the trial he was involved in was inconcl

Andrew Mellon

Secretary of Treasury during Harding's presidency. Engineered a series of tax reductions, which favored the rapid expansion of capital investment, to help the economy and reduce national debt. Reduced the amount of taxes rich people had to pay, placing th

Harlem Renaissance

Also known as "New Negro Movement" during the 1920s. Cultural movement in northern black communities that contributed to the Blues and Jazz age. Included Louis Armstrong (musician), Marcus Garvey (founder of UNIA), Langston Hughes (poet).

Bruce Barton

Wrote the bestseller The Man Nobody Knows , which claimed that Jesus Christ was the perfect salesman. Founder of the new "profession" of advertising in response to mass produced goods. Used persuasion and ploy, seduction and sexual suggestion, which led t

Henry Ford

An inventor of the infant automotive industry; created the assembly line resulting in mass production; "Automobile Wizard" with his Model T.

Frederick W. Taylor

Wrote The Principles of Scientific Management; "Father of Scientific Management";Wanted to improve industrial efficiency.

Margaret Sanger

Fought for birth control and planned parenthood; Led the birth control feminist movement; championed the use of contraceptives.

Sigmund Freud

Viennese physician;Wrote about the justification of sexual frankness; Argued that sexual repression was responsible for nervous and emotional ills.

H. L. Mencken

Writer for the American Mercury, a monthly magazine. He criticized many subjects like the middle class, democracy, marriage, and patriotism. A reporter for the scopes trial, which he nicknamed the "monkey" trial.

F. Scott Fitzgerald

Known to be the voice of the Lost Generation writers. Author of the Great Gatsby, he explored the glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society. He was able to capture the realities of the Jazz Age.

Ernest Hemingway

Famous author of The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms. In the 1920s he became upset with the idealism of America versus the realism he saw in World War I. He was among the writers most affected by the war, he responded to propaganda and the overblown

Sinclair Lewis

He was the master of satire and was the first person from the U.S. to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. He disparaged small-town America in his Main Street and Babbitt. His works are known for their insightful and critical views of American society and cap

William Faulkner

A writer who wrote a war novel called "Soldier's Play" in 1926. He also wrote many books about the lives of Southerners during the Civil War. His novels were famous for the use of "stream of consciousness

Sacco and Vanzetti Case

A case of two Italian men who were convicted of murder in 1921. They were prosecuted because they were Italians, atheists, and anarchists. After 6 years, the case resulted in execution due to weak evidence.

Ku Klux Klan

A group that was pro-Anglo-Saxon, pro-"native" American, and pro-Protestant. They were against all groups that did not have a protestant background. It collapsed after officials were caught embezzling money.

Emergency Quota Act 1921

Restricted immigration to 3% of each nationality that was living in the United States in 1910. Favored immigrants in southern and eastern Europe.

Immigration Quota Act 1924

This act reduced the number of immigrants allowed into the United States from 3% to 2% of the nationality present in America in 1890. This highly favored Western European immigrants over those from Southern and Eastern Europe. It also prevented the immigr

Volstead Act

This legislation helped encourage the ratification of the 18th Amendment. It prohibited all alcohol containing more than 0.5% alcoholic content, which effectively banned practically all forms of alcoholic drinks. It also outlawed the manufacturing and sal

Birth of a Nation

The first full-length silent film that was directed by D. W. Griffith. The film recounts the history of the rise of the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction in America. It was very controversial and was banned in some cities.

Warren G. Harding

Republican President of the 1920s known for his "soft" policies. He hired the "Ohio Gang" to his cabinet, who partook in several corruption scandals including Teapot Dome, leaving a bad reputation for the Presidency. He successfully achieved the continuat

Charles Evans Hughes

Secretary of State under Harding. Former Republican governor of New York who was a reformer. He urged the U.S., England, Japan, France, and Italy to disarm/reduce their weapons.

Herbert Hoover

Republican president during the Great Depression. Emphasized minimal business regulation, low taxes, and high tariffs. Belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.

Albert B. Fall

Secretary of the Interior under Harding administration. Cabinet member who profited from and was convicted for the Teapot Dome scandal. He was charged for taking bribes for leases on federal oil reserves.

Harry M. Daugherty

U.S. attorney general during the Harding administration. He was a Republican party boss, and a member of the Ohio Gang. He was accused for selling liquor permits and pardons illegally.

Charles R. Forbes

Member of the Ohio Gang. Head of Veterans' Bureau during Hardin administration. He was caught after looting over $200 million from the government and Veterans hospital funding.

Calvin Coolidge

Vice president and then president when Harding died. Signed the Indian Citizenship Act 1924 and Congress passed the Capper-Volstead Act and McNary-Haugen Bill during his administration. Continued isolationism, withdrew some troops from Latin America, and

John W. Davis

Democratic nominee in the election of 1924. Wealthy corporation lawyer connected with Wall Street banking house of J. P. Morgan and Company. His party was split between the "wets" and "drys" and was enthusiastically chosen as a candidate.

Robert La Follette

Sought to run as an independent in the election of 1924; eventually accepted the Progressive Party nomination; received 17% of the popular vote but only carried Wisconsin.

Alfred E. Smith

Democratic candidate in the election of 1928; the first Roman Catholic to run for president; lost to the Republican candidate of 1928.

Ohio Gang

Nickname for Harding's cabinet. Involved in the many scandals including the Teapot Dome. Harding used this group of people to try to return the nation to "normalcy

Washington Conference

Nine nations were present to negotiate post World War I interests in the Pacific Ocean; the first international disarmament conference in history; Produced many treaties including Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty, and the Nine-Power Treaty

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Passed overwhelmingly in Senate; an attempt at creating a long lasting world peace after World War I; it bound many nations together and created a uniform international law

Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law

Raised tariff during Harding's presidency; meant to protect the over-surpluses of farmers; raised taxes from 27 percent to 38.5 percent for dutiable products

Teapot Dome

Greatest Scandal in the executive branch before Watergate that happened during Harding's presidency; cabinet members accepted bribes from private oil companies; Senator Walsh pursued evidence to uncover Secretary Fall's scandal

McNary-Haugen Bill

Farmers looked for relief through this which sought to keep agricultural prices high by authorizing the government to buy up surpluses and sell them abroad. This bill only helped farmers alittle. President coolidge vetoed this bill twice.

Dawes Plan

Created by Charles Dawes 1924 which rescheduled German reparations payments and gave the way for further American private loans to Germany. The payments were a circle from the U.S. to Germany to Britain/France and back to the U.S. The U.S. gained enemies

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

This raised the tariff to a very high 60%. This tariff was the highest protective tariff in the nation's peacetime history. It started out as a very low tariff in the House, but acquired many amendments from the Senate.

Black Tuesday

Happened on October 29, 1929 after investors began to sell all of their stocks. On this day 16,410,030 shares of stocks were sold in a save-who-may scramble. This day ended the Golden Twenties and started the Great Depression.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Congress created the RFC in 1932 which became a government lending bank. A large step for Hoover away from laissez faire policies and toward policies the Democrats (FDR) would later employ. Giant corporations benefited the most from this.

Bonus Army

Group of 20,000 former soldiers that marched to Washington in protest of the federal government not paying them money. Created a gigantic "Hooverville" in front of the captial. Results in Hoover ordering the evacuation by force and lowers Hoover's popular

Hoover-Stimson Doctrine

Declared that the United States would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force. Created by the Secretary of State in 1932 in response to Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Said that a "preach-and-run" policy would replace solid ini

Federal Housing Authority

Became part of the New Deal after it was set up by Roosevelt for recovery and better homes. in 1934 this agency was to give small loans to house-holders in order to improve them. Helped improve and increase the construction and completion of homes in the

Alfred M. Landon

Republican candidate in the election of 1936 against Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. Platform was completely anti-New Deal and backed by Hoover and the Liberty League.. Lost the electoral count to FDR's 523 to his 8.

Keynesian Economics

FDR's new program after the smaller depression in 1937. It called for planned deficit spending and it largely changed the economy. This policy lasted in the American economy for decades.

New Deal

1933-1940 in the U.S. during which FDR's economic policies were implemented. The name of FDR's program for getting the U.S. out of the Great depression. This promoted economic recovery and social reform during the 1930s.

Brain Trusts

This was a group of expert policy advisers in the 1930's. They were comprised mostly of college professors. They helped write create legislation for FDR's New Deal.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Put the New Deal into place. Defeated Hoover in the election of 1932. Part of the "Big Three" during World War 2.

Eleanor Roosevelt

Civil rights advocate. Women's rights advocate. Said to be most active First Lady.

Harry Hopkins

Led the Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA). Influential during FDR's presidency. Involved in the New Deal.

Frances Perkins

First female cabinet member. Secretary of Labor for FDR. Influential figure behind the Social Security Act

Father Coughlin

Created an anti new deal radio. Roman Catholic. His radio show was taken off the air due to its increasing anti-semitism

Huey Long

Share Our Wealth" program promised every family $5,000. Senator from Louisiana. "Every Man is King

Francis Townsend

One of the agitators of FDR's New Deal. Planned to have federal government send every citizen over 60 $200 a month, appealing to seniors. Influenced the creation of the Social Security Act.

Harold Ickes

Led the PWA. Secretary of the Interior under FDR. Was behind the creation of the Grand Coulee Dam

George W. Norris

Progressive senator from Nebraska that was active in the New Deal. He pushed for the Tennessee Valley Authority. He served in the House of Representatives.

John L. Lewis

Unskilled laborer who began to organize a union. Became the leader of the United Mine Workers. Succeeded in forming the Committee for Industrial Organization within the ranks of the AF of L.

Three R's

FDR's plan that became the New Deal. It aimed for immediate relief, widespread recovery, and permanent reform. Commenced after the nationwide banking holiday.

Glass-Steagall Act

Piece of legislation aimed at decreasing the amount of bank failures during the Great Depression. Provided measure for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, insuring individual deposits up to $5,000. Greatly reduced the amount of bank failures after

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Employed about 3 million men to work on projects that benefited the public. Workers planted trees, built levees for flood control, and improved national parks. This program's primary goal was to give jobs to men.

Works Progress Administration

Authorized by Congress in 1935; put $11 million on thousands of public buildings, bridges, roads; Gave 9 million people jobs, and also found part-time jobs for needy high school and college students.

National Recovery Act

Most complicated of the New Deal programs; Was designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed; Were maximum hours of labor, minimum wages, and more rights for labor union members, including the right to choose their own representatives in bargaini

Tennessee Valley Authority

Sought to discover exactly how much money it took to produce electricity and keep rates reasonable; Introduced a government company competing against free enterprise; Constructed dams on the Tennessee River and helped the extremely poor citizens of the ar

Social Security Act of 1935

Greatest victory for the New Dealers; Created pension and insurance for the old-aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents; Taxed employees and their employers.

Wagner Act

Also known as the National Labor Relations Act of 1935; Took the place of the National Recovery Act; Guaranteed the right of unions to organize and collectively bargain with management.

National Labor Relation Board

Established by Executive Order 6763 in 1934, Took the place of the organization set up in the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933, Responsible for investigating unfair labor practices.

Congress of Industrial Organizations

A group of unions that helped organize workers into unions, Later merged with the American Federation of Labor, Organized the Flint Sit-Down Strike.

Liberty League

Created by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal, Stated that its goals were to "defend the Constitution and defend the rights and liberties guaranteed by that Constitution", Lost most of its support after FDR won the election of 1936 by a landsli

Twentieth Amendment

Nicknamed the "Lame-Duck", Shorted time between Election Day and the time the President or Congress took office, Solved the problem of FDR's long wait until he could act upon the Great Depression

Twenty-first Amendment

Allowed for the importation and production of alcohol in the United States, Was an attempt to help businesses flow the Great Depression, Was ratified on December 5, 1933.

Court-Packing Scheme

FDR's attempt to add more members to the Supreme Court to more easily pass his New Deals; granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S. Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six, for every sitting member over the age of 70 years and

The London Conference

Composed 66 nations that came together to develop a worldwide solution to the Great Depression; FDR backed out to protect US dollars from deflation; its purpose was to win agreement on measures to fight global depression, revive international trade, and s

Four Freedoms

Part of FDR's speech to motivate America for war in 1941. This included freedom of speech, religion, want, and from fear. It was used to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these would be ensured.

Good Neighbor Policy

Established by President Hoover to better relations with Latin America; put into practice and enforced by FDR; nullified the former Roosevelt Corollary.

Neutrality Acts

A series of policies passed by Congress in 1935, 1936 and 1937; stated that when the President recognized the existence of foreign war, automatic restrictions would go into place; prohibits belligerent nations from receiving American aid.

Nye Committee

Created in 1934 to investigate whether munition manufacturers were pro-war, or existed only to make money. Headed by a senator from North Dakota. This group blamed manufacturers for dragging America into WWI.

Panay Incident

Japanese sinking of a U.S. gunboat. Japan make the necessary apologies "saving" the US from entering into the war. Intensified American isolationist attitudes.

Lend-Lease Act

Created in hopes of keeping the U.S. out of the war. idea called "Send guns, not sons" or "Billions, not bodies." Taft compared this to sharing chewing gum.

Atlantic Charter

8 points made within this document. Some main points were to territory change against the wishes of the natives, as well as self-determination. Disarmament and peace of security, as well as a new League of Nations.

Pearl Harbor

Unexpected Japanese attack on the US. Sparked American entrance and support for entering WWII. U.S. Navy base in Hawaii.

Executive Order 9066

Ordered by FDR after Pearl Harbor. Purpose to eliminate Japanese spies. Forced into internment camps.

Korematsu v. U.S.

Landmark Supreme Court case concerning constitutionality of Executive Order 9066. Upheld constitutionality of Japanese internment camps. Proposed during WWII.

Office of Price Administration

Established within the Office for Emergency Management. Originally to control prices and rents after the outbreak of WWII. Regulated sudden spurt in prices of goods due to increased production during WWII.

Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act

Proposed after threats of lost production through strikes during WWII. Authorized the federal government to seize and operate tied-up businesses. Passed over FDR's veto.

WAAC

Women's branch of the U.S. Army. Created as an auxiliary unit. Molded after comparable British units.

Rosie the Riveter

Propaganda character designed during the 1920's; encouraged increased production from female workers in the factories; a symbol proclaiming women to "do their part.

Bracero Program

Initiated in 1942 through diplomatic negotiations between the U.S. and Mexico; provided temporary Mexican contract workers to come in the United States for work; filled essential slots left empty by men called to war.

CORE

Lead by James Farmer; created in 1942 to combat discrimination through peaceful protest; organized Freedom Rides throughout the South to try to force desegregation on resistant communities.

Douglas MacArthur

Allied commander and 5-star general in the U.S. military; lead the U.S. forces into Japan during WWII; remained in Japan to democratize government.

Dwight Eisenhower

Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in WWII; lead the massive invasion of Normandy known as D-Day; directed the conquest of Nazi Germany.

Chester Nimitz

United States Admiral of the Pacific Fleet during WW2 who used aircraft carriers. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. He became famous through his victory at the

Battle of Midway

Turning point and most important naval battle in the Pacific theatre in World War II. June 3-6, 1942, when Chester Nimitz forced back Japanese troops that were trying to seize the island. The US Navy ended Japanese expansion for the rest of the war.

D-Day

Allied Invasion of France in WW2; Planned by FDR, Churchill and Stalin; Secured Normandy Beach.

Hiroshima

First location of the U.S. atomic bomb of Japan. The bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945. It was known to be Japan's center for communication, storage, and assembly area for troops.

Nagasaki

Location of the second U.S. atomic bomb on Japan. This bombing killed over 40,000 Japanese citizens. On the following day of this bombing, Japan surrendered and the ceasefire began.

Dixiecrats

The southerners that broke away from the Democrat Party due to their shift of a political stance for the civil rights movement. They wanted to maintain southern beliefs and traditions. In the 1948 election Strom Thurmond was nominated on a State's Rights

Fair Deal

President Truman 1949 plan that called for improved housing, higher minimum wage, better farm prices, and an extension of social security. Though all his ideas were not fulfilled during Truman's term Lyndon B. Johnson continued its ideas with his Great So

38th parallel

This divided Korea into two regions during the Cold War. The North section of this area was under communist, and the South section was under democratic rule. This division are later becomes the demilitarized zone.

Harry Truman

He devised the Fair Deal of 1949. He used the Marshall plan to work out a joint plan for Europe's economic recovery.This president was the 1st president to recognize the State of Israel.

Iranian Hostage Crisis

United States civilians were kept in cruel captivity in the middle east. During Carter's presidency, mobs of angry Iranians were seen burning the American flag which was caught on the American news, aired on television. Very humiliating to the us and jimm

George Kennan

United states ambassador of the soviet union. Inspired the Truman doctrine, to contain communism. Stated that communism would not work, unless it was at a global scale.

Douglas MacArthur

General of the united states army who lead the wars in Japan and in Korea. Lead the reconstructing of Japan. Due to his success him and his troops were ordered to station at Korea. Battle of Inchon was a turning point in the battle pushing the north Korea

Joseph McCarthy

Crazy republican senator who lead the red scare campaign. His publicity came when he suspected communism in the state department. He went overboard when he suspected the us army as communist.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

They are the only Americans ever executed during peacetime for espionage; they were convicted in 1951 of giving atomic bomb data to the Soviet Union; with little evidence, they were deemed guilty and executed.

J. Robert Oppenheimer

He was an American physicist; "Father of the atomic Bomb"; Director of the Manhattan Project.

Adlai Stevenson

Democratic candidate; his intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads"; appointed ambassador to the United Nations.

Dwight Eisenhower

Modern republicanism,"The republicans choice"; Did not undo the new deal of the democrats when elected president; he was the most popular American.

Richard Nixon V.P.

Eisenhower's vice president and campaigned the "rough part" for him. Gave his famous Checkers Speech. Lost in 1960 election against Kennedy.

Yalta Conference

Final conference of the Big Three and some say that it was the start of tensions between the Soviet and US. Attempted to gain Soviet Russia's support for the Japan attack. Stalin broke some promises and it seemed as if USSR got all the benefits.

U.N. Security Council

Member nations drew up a charter similar to that of the old League of Nations. Headed by five permanent powers: China, USSR, Britain, France, USA. Headquartered in New York City.

Nuremberg trials

Held by the Allied powers in Germany. Tried known Nazis for war crimes in the Holocaust. Legal critics condemned these proceedings as judicial lynchings, because the victims were tried for offenses that had not been clear-cut crimes when WWII began.

Iron Curtain

Coined by Winston Churchill. It is the dividing line between the Democratic and Communist countries. This is the ideological fighting and physical line that splits Europe after World War 11 up to the end of the Cold War.

Berlin Airlift

Stalin puts an embargo on supplies entering west Germany. The US responds to this by dropping in necessities. It lasted about 11 months.

containment doctrine

This is based off the ideas of George Kennan. It said that the Soviet Union and Communism must be stopped from spreading into other parts of the world. America's foreign policy during most of the Cold War.

Truman Doctrine

The United States in support of anybody or country fighting against any communist threat. Presented to Congress in 1947. Originally used to help Greece and Turkey from Soviet backed insurgencies.

Marshall plan

Implemented by Truman's secretary of State. It was America's plan to rebuild postwar Europe. Sent a total of 12.5 billion dollars to several European nations in order to fund the recovery.

White Flight

The movement of the white middle class to the suburbs. Lead to racial separation between cities and suburbs by leaving blacks and the poor in the cities. Seen in suburbs such as Levittowns.

NATO

Military alliance of Western European powers and the United States and Canada. established in to defend against the threat of the Soviet Union and Communism. Opponent of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War era.

Taft-Hartley Act

Anti-union legislation passed over President Truman's veto that weakened many of labor's New Deal gains. Banned the closed shop and other strategies that helped unions organize. It also required union leaders to take a non communist oath, which purged the

HUAC

Investigatory body established in 1938 to root out "subversion"; Sought to expose communist influence in American government and society; seen in the popular prosecution of Alger Hiss by Richard Nixon.

McCarran Act

Law enacted by Congress in September 1950 during the Cold War; required communist organizations to submit rosters of the members and allowed for the monitoring of those suspected of subversion; vetoed by President Truman but passed in Congress.

Betty Friedan

American feminist, activist and writer; mother of the 20th century woman's rights movement; author of The Feminine Mystique.

Billy Graham

Popularly known Baptist in the mid-20th century; took to TV to spread his Christianity nationwide; part of the group of televised preachers known as "televangelists".

Martin Luther King Jr.

Minister and civil rights leader, formed the southern christian leadership conference, he was an activist in peaceful protests against discrimination of African Americans.

Richard Nixon (President)

Proposed the idea of "vietnamization" , created the policy of detente, involved in the Watergate scandal.

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese leader who revolted against french colonization, the cold war turned his ideals towards communism, he led Northern Vietnamese in the war against the United States and South Vietnam.

Ngo Dinh Diem

First president of the Republic of South Vietnam, was anti-communist during the Vietnam War, assassinated during a coup d'etat.

Nikita Krushchev

Leader of Soviet Union. Part of the Space Race and Cuban Missile Crisis. Had relations to John F. Kennedy.

Fidel Castro

Communist Cuban leader. Involved with Cuban Missile Crisis. Almost overthrown in the Bay of Pigs

John F. Kennedy

Came up with a policy called, "The New Frontier". Foreign Policy was Flexible Response. Creator of the Peace Corps.

Cult of domesticity

Belief that women belong in the house taking care of men and civilising them. Passed on values to their family. kept women from getting jobs.

McCarthyism

The witch hunt for communists in the government in the early cold war. Policy that damaged freedom of speech. Named after a US senator from Wisconsin.

Sit-ins

Protest where people refuse to leave an area. Started in US in 1960 when black college students were refused service at a lunch counter. Lead to formation of SNCC

Massive retaliation

Eisenhower's response plan to a nuclear attack. Proved ineffective in Hungarian revolt. Replaced by Kennedy's flexible response.

The Feminine Mystique

Nonfiction book written by Betty Friedan in 1963. Described unhappiness of housewives in the 50's and early 60's. Book helped launch the second wave of feminism.

Televangelists

Using radio and cable tv to preach conservative evangelical Christian ideals. Billy Graham. Advocates of conservative ideals in politics.

Checkers Speech

Saved Nixon's candidacy. Referring to his family dog, a cocker spaniel. Showed the potentials and powers of television.

Army-McCarthy Hearings

Accused members of the U.S. for being communist. Senate had condemned him for "conduct unbecoming member." Revealed the political power of television, 20 million Americans were watching.

Brown v. Board of education

Ruled that segregation in public schools was "inherently unequal" and thus unconstitutional. Overturned the court decision in Plessy vs Ferguson. Unanimous decision under the court of Chief Justice Earl Warren.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Rosa Parks a college-educated black woman, made history in Montgomery Alabama. Sat in a "whites only" section and refused to give it up. Started a yearlong black boycott of city buses.

Suez Crisis

When President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a dam in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject. Nasser respon

Eisenhower Doctrine

Congress and US President pledged US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression. Under the Doctrine the US was able to openly land several thousand troops and help restore order without taking a single life. Und

U-2 incident

Under Eisenhower administration just before the "summit conference" in Paris scheduled for May 1960, the American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Russia. Eisenhower was forced to step up and assume personal responsibility for the incident. Francis Gary P

National Defense Education Act

Reaction to the launching of Sputnik in 1957. Changed the focus of American education. Improvement in the teachings of sciences and languages.

Robert F. Kennedy

Was the US Attorney General in the early 60s. Set out to recast the priorities of the FBI to focus on organized crime and civil rights violations. Assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan in 1968.

Robert McNamara

Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and L.B. Johnson. Emphasized "flexible response". Didn't believe in large amount of troops in Vietnam and that superior technology won wars.

Lyndon Johnson

Former Texas senator and representative. Passed the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act. Caused inflation by funding both Great Society programs and the Vietnam War.

Barry Goldwater

Former Arizona senator. "Daisy" commercial showed as trigger-happy bomb enthusiast. First Republican to win the Deep South

Malcolm X

Believed in black separatism. Became a Muslim while in prison. Assassinated while addressing the Organization of Afro-American Unity

Stokely Carmichael

A leader of the student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC). Preached the doctrine of "black power". Was an advocate for black separatism.

Eugene McCarthy

1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.

Hubert Humphrey

Served as L.B. Johnson's Vice President. Ran for president in 1968 but lost to Richard Nixon. Was a senator from Minnesota 1971-1978.

George Wallace

Was known for saying "segregation today, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever!" Was the governor of Alabama from 1963-1987. Won five states in the 1968 Presidential election.

Flexible Response

A defense strategy implemented by John F. Kennedy in 1961; increased the ability to confine the response to non-nuclear weapons; modified Eisenhower's policy of Massive Retaliation.

Credibility Gap

The miscommunication between what the government actually said and what was actually true; associated with Lyndon B. Johnson administration's statements and policies on the Vietnam War; reinforced with the release of the Pentagon Papers.

New Frontier

Was proposed by John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention; program that promised changes for economic equality and civil rights for all; proposed to do things like giving

Peace Corps

One of J.F. Kennedy's first presidential acts; through this program, Americans volunteered to help underdeveloped nations; provided help with such things as education, farming, health care, and construction.

Bay of Pigs

CIA backed scheme to topple Fidel Castro. Invasion of Cuba by communist rebels in which Kennedy took the blame for. Pushed Cuba to a closer alliance with Russia.

Cuban missile Crisis

Closest the world has ever come to a nuclear war. US quarantine was started due to placement of Russian Missile. Lasted 13 days, until Khrushchev agreed to a compromise.

Alliance for Progress

Marshall plan for Latin America. Help to close the rich and poor gap and quiet communist agitation. This was a failed form of American handouts of money.

Freedom Riders

Done in attempt to end segregation in facilities serving interstate bus passengers. White mobs torched these buses and riots were provoked. After this incident, Kennedy made civil rights a focal point in his administration.

War on Poverty

Proposed by LBJ and apart of his "Great Society" program. Created jobs to help people work. An attempt to bring US out of recession.

Great Society

Compared to FDR's "New Deal" program. Promised to bring social reform. LBJ's proposals during his presidency.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Gave president power to declare war in Southeast Asia. Lawmakers gave up their power to declare war. Put into place during LBJ and removed when Nixon was in office.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

It created the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to eliminate discrimination in hiring. It banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to public. It was a powerful instrument of federally enforced gender equality, as

Voting Rights Act of 1965

71. Outlawed poll taxes and literacy tests. Enfranchised African-American in more than just law, but in action as well. Passed under Lyndon B. Johnson.

Black Power

Had leaders such as Stokely Carmichael, Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcom X. Brought about by the peaceful protest and also the black panther movement. Reason for race riots such as the Watts Riots.

Hawks & Doves

Name was reminiscent of old civil war era congressmen. Pro-war and Anti-war. Conservative America and the counter culture youth that LBJ had to appease both of to continue war in Vietnam.

Tet Offensive

Attack on Vietnamese lunar new year. Lead by the Viet-Cong. Unexpected by American troops.

Beat" Poets

Experimentation with drugs and alternative forms of sexuality. American post-World War II writers. Writers like Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac who wrote about skepticism about authority.

Students for a Democratic Society

Against Vietnam War. Part of the cultural revolution in the 1960s. Peaceful protesters that developed into a terrorist negotiation called the Weatherman and started riots.

Spiro Agnew

Nixon's vice president who was forced to resign due to corruption.Governor of Maryland who ran as Vice President with Richard Nixon in 1968. He was known for his tough stance against dissidents and black militants.

Henry Kissinger

United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford. Main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese in the Vietnam War. Secretary of State during Nixon's presidency, awarded the 1974 Nobel Peace Prize.

George McGovern

Former South Dakota senator whose anti-war campaign was swamped by Nixon. He lost in a landslide in the election of 1972. He won the Democratic nomination, and based his campaign on pulling troops out of Vietnam in 90 days.

Gerald Ford

The first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in 1974 when the former president resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed.

Jimmy Carter

Negotiated to Free the Americans held hostage in the Iran hostage crisis. Signed the SALT II agreements. After leaving office he received the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize.

Thurgood Marshall

Victory in Brown vs. Board of Education. First colored justice in Supreme Court. Nominated to Supreme Court by Lyndon B Johnson.

D�tente

A period of relaxed tensions between the United States, China, and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The opposite of "rollback".

Vietnamization

Plan to withdraw 540,000 American troops from South Vietnam. Vietnamese would then finish up their own war with American money and weapons. Enacted by President Nixon

Nixon Doctrine

Created during the Vietnam war. Stated that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops. Would apply to all anti-communist countrie

My Lai Massacre

An incident where American troops invaded a Viet Cong village and killed many women and children. Pictures of this invasion were sent to the U.S. press and viewed by American public. Troops entirely lost the support of the American people.

Cambodian incursion

Helped policy of Vietnamization succeed; Nixon authorized in order to destroy supply lines and base; outraged Americans due to neutrality during war

Kent State Killings

Shooting of unarmed college students; students were protesting against the Cambodian Incursion; the National Guard opened fire on students

Environmental Protection Agency

Created to protect air and water quality; monitored use of pesticides; regulated environmental protection and conservation

Saturday Night Massacre

Takes place after the Watergate Scandal is released. Nixon dismisses his attorney general, prosecutor, and deputy attorney general. Nixon is forced to reveal the tapes and shows how he abused his presidential privileges.

Title IX

Prohibits sexual discrimination in any federal program or education. Opportunity created for women in sports and activities. Passed by Congress in 1972.

Equal Rights Amendment

Provided equal right for men and women. Was not ratified because it was short 3 states. Phyllis Schlafly opposed this heavily.

Roe v. Wade

This landmark case legalized abortion. Said that a woman's right to end a pregnancy was under the right of privacy. Was a feminist victory.

Bakke case

Battled reverse discrimination. Said that race could be factored into the admission policy. Admission preference on any race was not allowed.

Salt II Treaty

negotiations between Carter and Brezhnev from 1977 to 1979 between the U.S. and the Soviet Union; nuclear arms treaty which assumed reductions on levels of lethal strategic weapons; was shot down by the senate.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Soviet leader, chairman of the Soviet Communist Party in March of 1985. Two policies of 'Glasnost'(openness) and 'Perestroika'(restructuring.) Capped his new friendship with Reagan in Moscow in 1988.

Sandra Day O'Connor

First woman to be a Supreme Court justice. Appointed by Reagan. Conservative judge from Arizona.

Jerry Falwell

Evangelical minister from Virginia; Created the Moral Majority party against sexual permissiveness, abortion, feminism, and gay rights; used the media to spread ideas.

Jesse Jackson

He was a candidate for the democratic presidential nomination in 1984-1st African American to run for president-Wanted a "rainbow coalition" of minorities and the disadvantaged.

Boris Yeltsin

First president of Russian Federation-Took power in 1991-replaced Gorbachev as the USSR disintegrated

Saddam Hussein

Iraqi Dictator-fought against the U.S. in Operation Desert Storm-invaded Kuwait

Clarence Thomas

Black nominated justice for the Supreme Court by President George W. H. Bush in 1991-he was against affirmative action and liberal groups-His nomination upset the NAACP and NOW

Supply-side" Economics

The economic policy that was strongly used during the Reagan Administration. This policy favored businesses and lowered taxes, hoping to provide more money for the lower classes and manufacturers. There would be a greater supply of goods, lower prices, an

Perestroika

A political movement within the Soviet Union during the 1980s, widely associated with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system where the Soviets

Iran-Contra Affair

A political scandal in the United States during the Reagan administration. Senior Reagan administration officials had secretly allowed the sale of arms to Iran, which was then the subject of an arms embargo. U.S. officials hoped that the arms sales would

Americans With Disabilities Act

Signed by Bush Sr. to lower discrimination to mental/physical handicaps and provides aid; one of George W. H. Bush's attempts to make a "kinder, gentler America"; enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1990

Gender gap

The preference women to the democratic party in the early 1990s; Stemmed from the decisions of the Supreme Court and the president on abortion; Damaged President Bush's political health

Gibbons v Ogden

Congress had the authority to regulate interstate commerce. Under Chief Justice John Marshall.

McCulloch v.Maryland

neither Hamiltonian loos interpretations of the elastic clause nor the BUS violated the Constitution. Show strong federal power