History 101 (15) Flashcards


a new kind of visual language that could project power and
grandeur and simultaneously engage viewers� senses

price revolution

huge economic change in the 16th century steady
population growth caused a relative shortage of goods, particularly
food and the result was higher prices one consequence for
this was land rents rose because of high demand and some peasant
were unable to rent land at all

Charles I of England

After his succession, Charles quarreled with the
Parliament of England, which sought to curb his
royal prerogative. Charles believed in the
divine right of kings and thought he could govern
according to his own conscience. he surrendered to a
Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English
Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a
constitutional monarchy, and temporarily escaped captivity
Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason

Edict of Nantes

established by Henry IV of France granted toleration
for the Huguenot minority in a royal edict proclaimed in the city of
Nantes it was a repetition of provisions from the most
generous edicts that had ended the various civil wars (ie:
nobles could practice protestant faith, protestants guaranteed
rights of self defense as well)�issue was this could be revoked at
any time by the king

Henry IV of France

he was a Protestant and had to fight for the throne� due to
unrest and issues he agreed to convert to Catholicism dealt
with religious wars/civil war in France issued the Edict of
Nantes� he did not solve the issue of religious/political division
in France but he ended the French religious wars


French people who met secretly and practiced the Protestant
religion war broke out between the Huguenots and the
Catholics of France resulted in a bloody civil war

French Religious Wars

Fought with the Protestants against the Catholics many
nobles/rulers had converted to Protestantism People
murdered one another over religious disagreement

Thirty Years' War

Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states
in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a
more general conflict involving most of the great powers. These
states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war
became less about religion and more of a continuation of the
France�Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence.
resulted in ruined economy and decimated the population�but the
�Peace of Westphalia� treaty was the only positive result

William Shakespeare

the great English poet and playwright many of his
themes were the legitimacy of rulers, contradictions in values
between the growing commercial world and the older feudal society
and his career was possible because his life coincided with the rise
of professional theater

Revolt of the Netherlands

The Dutch Revolt (1566 or 1568�1648)[note 1] was the
successful revolt of the northern, largely ProtestantSeven Provinces
of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King
Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces. The southern
provinces initially joined in the revolt, but later submitted to
Spain. The religious 'clash of cultures' built up gradually
but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the perceived
repression of the Habsburg These tensions led to the formation of
the independent Dutch Republic. The first leader was William of
Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This
revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led
to one of the first European republics of the modern era

Elizabeth I of England

the Act of Supremacy was passed which restored the monarch as
head of the Church of England she was a supporter of the
Protestant religion and allowed for the Protestant interpretations
of the communion to be used while allowing some catholic practices
to prevail as well the greatest threat to the crown came
form the Puritans after dealing with many issues Elizabeth
died and left behind 2 major issues�unresolved religious tensions
and financial instability

Jean Bodin

a famous legal scholar whose most famous works appeared in the
Six Books of the Republic his contribution was a vision of
a truly sovereign monarch offered a theoretical
understanding that is essential to states today and is the ground on
which people can claim rights and protection from the state


the most radical Protestants emphasis on Bible
reading, preaching, and private scrutiny of conscience; a
de-emphasis on institutional ritual and clerical authority
Elizabeth�s greatest challenge came from Puritans in

Armada gentry


Peace of Westphalia

The peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years� War put
an end to the religious war in the empire Calvinism was
recognized and tolerated religion and subjects must follow their
ruler�s faith but some leeway was allowed under the control of new

Philip II of Spain


St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

the Protestant faction in France pressed the king for war
against Spain to aid Protestant rebels in the Netherlands
Opposed to another war against Spain and alarmed by rumors of
Huguenot armies massing outside Paris, Charles IX and his mother
authorized royal guards to murder the Protestant leaders (on St.
Bartholomew�s Day) These murders touched off a massacre of
Protestants throughout Paris and, once news from Paris had spread,
throughout the kingdom.