History 101 (14) Flashcards

Council of Trent

established for the purpose of defining Roman Catholicism and
drawing the boundaries between it and the Protestant religion
rejected protestant beliefs (ie: positions on the sacraments,
the giving of wine to the laity during Communion, marriage of clergy
and granting indulgences) established catholic rule:
affirmed apostolic succession, underlined authority of the pope,
ordered that local bishops should reside in their dioceses


radical/reformers who interpreted biblical commands more
literally than most people behavior and community standards
> theological arguments believed only adults should be
baptized and this is AFTER they confessed their sins (against infant

Counter-Reformation/Catholic Reform

counter reformation often referred to the act of going/pushing
against the Protestant movement included traditional
reform/renewal within the Catholic Church (embracing traditional

Augsburg Confession

the most widely accepted exposition of Lutheran belief
basic statement of the Lutheran faith the document was
meant to form the basis of compromise with Catholic powers

Index of Prohibited Books

one type of Catholic reform successive popes made
public lists of books and ideas that they considered to be in error,
this list was combined into the Index of Prohibited Books
this included works of humanists and Protestants

Institutes of the Christian Religion

the summa of reformed theology (created by John Calvin)
outlined his understanding that only some people were
predestined to salvation but there were ways to tell who was and who
was not to be saved he believed that there could be no
salvation without also living a holy life on Earth

Ignatius Loyola

established the �Society of Jesus/The Jesuits�
initially wanted to create a missionary order to convert the
muslims but established a full on movement composed
Spiritual Exercises to educate his members and followers in the
importance of obedience combined his military training and
ideals with the religious order/beliefs main goal was to
educate and then completed reconversions of Protestants

Henry VIII of England

King of England, was very suspicious of Lutheran and the
Protestant teachings he wanted a divorce from his wife
because she couldn�t birth him sons and he wanted the Luther reign
to continue so he tried to get a divorce had to break away
from the papacy and managed to make himself the supreme head of the
church and clergy of England (which allowed him to get a divorce and
control religious stuff)

Huldrych Zwingli

he became a medieval priest and began to preach strongly
biblical sermons (in Zurich) Zurich became a Protestant
city believed reform should be a communal movement and that
moral regeneration of individuals was an essential part of God�s

Charles V

one of the few rulers who claimed to be emperor had
issues with a lot of other states over land lots of dissent
and issues about religion under his reign

Jesuits/Society of Jesus

Established by Ignatius Loyola a movement in which
missionaries set out to educate it�s members and to convert
protestants to catholicism they travelled across Europe
spreading their beliefs (they also received papal approval for their
teachings) successful in brining many parts of the Holy Roman
Empire back into communion with the papacy

John Calvin

He was an educated humanist and a reformer for the Christian
religion there can be no salvation if we do not also live a
holy life it is the church�s and church leader�s duty to
promote moral progress to the community

Martin Luther

a reformer that protested against the practices in the late
medieval church �Justification by faith� against
indulgences posted the 95 theses which exposed corrupt
priests/economic abuses of the clergy Emperor Charles V
attempted to get him to take back what he said but he refused

Justification by faith alone

Luther�s belief� �the acts of piety so typical of the medieval
church were quite unnecessary for salvation because Christ�s
sacrifice had brought justification once and for all. Justification
came entirely from God and was independent of human works�

Scripture alone

Luther�s claim that the Scriptures must be the basis of all
life and his appeal to the judgement of laity made sense to the men
and women in towns and villages, here councils of local people were
accustomed to making decisions based on ideas of the common

Priesthood of all believers

Protestants believe that through Christ they have been given
direct access to God, just like a priest; thus the doctrine is
called the priesthood of all believers. God is equally accessible to
all the faithful, and every Christian has equal potential to
minister for God.