History 101 (13) Flashcards

Council of the Indies

the king of Spain created this; saw to all legal and
administrative issues pertaining to the new possessions new
territories were divided into viceroyalty of New Spain and the
viceroyalty of Peru


Mexico, Tenochtitl�n conquered and united groups under
their rule, had an advanced canal system, advanced trading
system religion was important to their society, human
sacrifices common generally at war with outside

Bartolom� de Las Casas

huge defender of Indian rights/anti slavery for Indians
he was a dominican missionary/eventually became a bishop
Indians could be civilized through Christian conversion not
coercion argument for natural slavery was indefensible

Prince Henry "the Navigator"

led the Portugese down the Western coast of Africa he
was intent on reaching the �River of Gold,� the Gold Coast of Africa
and the Niger Delta he sponsored a series of expeditions
down the African coast, reaching Senegal and the Cape Verde
Islands quickly established trading stations in the region
and soon were exporting gold and slaves to Lisbon

Christopher Columbus

symbol of European expansion he expected that by
sailing farther west he could fulfill a series of medieval
prophecies that would lead to the conversion of the whole world to
Christianity attempted to colonize the new lands he
discovered; he seized food stock, kidnapped women and embarked on a
frenzied search for gold found lots of Indians
goal was to sail to the Indies (this never happened)

Columbian Exchange

As the Spanish and other European moved throughout the world,
they carried with them religions, ideas, people, plants, animals and
diseases. blending of cultures

Vasco da Gama

sailed from Lisbon in 1497 on a mission to reach India and open
a sea route from Europe to the East. After sailing down the
western coast of Africa and rounding the Cape of Good Hope, his
expedition made numerous stops in Africa before reaching the trading
post of Calicut, India, in May 1498. Da Gama received a
hero�s welcome back in Portugal, and was sent on a second expedition
to India in 1502, during which he brutally clashed with Muslim
traders in the region.


an offer/grant, of a certain number of people or tribes who
were required to work under his direction the Spanish
government expected that the encomendero was to be a protector of
the conquered peoples, someone, who would Christianize and civilize
them in theory natives who voluntarily agreed to be converted
to Christianity would not be under the control of an

Ferdinand Magellan

the crew suffered greatly on their voyages from illness and
starvation Magellan reached the Phillipines a year
later he was killed by natives was inspired by Christopher

trading-post empire

established by the Portuguese an empire based on
control of trade rather than on colonization Portuguese
commercial empire succeeded

Hern�n Cort�s

he took over/conquered the Aztecs Do�a Marina was an
Aztec noblewomen who assisted Cort�s initially it was a
cultural exchange between the two groups they eventually
overthrew the Aztec empire but the transfer of European culture was
never fully complete to the new lands


Amerindian empire, efficient armies, thousands of miles of
roads, sophisticated administrative system and had strong political
control (Peru) perfected irrigation system, unsettled by
harsh tax exactions conquered by Francisco Pizzaro

Marco Polo

traveled with his father, took accounts of his travels to Pisan
as they both languished as prisoners of war in Genoese jail
his book was a success among Venetians book was called

Do�a Marina

a Mexican women who was converted to Christianity and aided
Hern�n Cort�s on his expeditions throughout Mexico/Aztec empire
she worked as his interpreter and his mistress/mediator between
the spanish and Natives

Mappa mundi & portolan

world map a circle, divided into three parts: Europe,
Africa and Asia and Jerusalem was the heart of the map what
it lacked in accuracy it made up for in symbolism

Juan Gines de Sepulveda

chaplain of King Charles I of Spain argued that
idolatry and cannibalism of the Indians made them, natural
slaves-Indians were merely human-like not necessarily human

Francisco Pizarro

one of the most successful private adventurers
conquered the Inca empire (killed the king and took over)
him and his allies seized vast amounts of gold and silver form
the Inca

Treaty of Tordesillas

Spain and Portugal agreed that the line of demarcation between
their two areas should be drawn 1480 miles west of the Azores
Spanish unwittingly granted the Portuguese rights to Brazil