AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Vocab

AIDS

Immune system disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weakness set in and other afflictions such as cancer or pneumonia

Arithmetic Population Density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the area unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit.

Census

A periodic and official count of country's population.

Child Mortality Rate

A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.

Chronic Disease

Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.

Crude Birth Rate

The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population.

Crude Death Rate

The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population.

Demographic Transition

Multistage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this

Dot Map

Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population.

Doubling Time

The time required for a population to double in size.

Eugenic Population Policies

Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others.

Expansive Population Policies

Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.

Infant Mortality Rate

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.

Life Expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live. Normally expressed in the context of a particular state.

Megalopolis

Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world; formerly used specifically with an uppercase "M" to refer to the Boston-Washington multimetropolitan corridor on the northeastern seaboard of the United St

Natural Increase

Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths. Natural increase of a population does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.

Physiological Population Density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

Population Composition

Structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.

Population Density

measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.

Population Distribution

Description of locations on the Earth's surface where populations live.

Population Explosion

The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase.

Population Pyramid

Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group (generally five-year increments) is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population. The

Restrictive Population Policies

Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.

Stationary Population Level

The level at which a national population ceases to grow.

Agricultural Density

The total rural population and amount of agricultural land

Carrying Capacity

The number or quantity of people or things that can be conveyed or held by a vehicle or container.

Demographic Momentum

Demographic momentum is the phenomenon of continued population increase despite reduced reproductive rates.

Demography

The study of statistics such as births, deaths, or income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.

Dependency Ratio

In economics and geography the dependency ratio is an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labor force (the dependent part and those typically in the labor force (the productive part)

Echo Boom

The demographic group of subjects with common defining characteristics following Generation X (the generation born after the Western post-World War II baby boom ended.)

Ecumene

A term originally used in the Greco-Roman world to refer to the inhabited earth (or at least the known part of it.)

Fertility Rate

The ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year.