Chapter Eleven of Human Geography: People, Places, and Culture Vocabulary

organic agriculture

crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers


the deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food, feed, fiber, and fuel

primary economic activites

economic activities that involve the extraction of economically valuable products from the earth

secondary economic activities

economic activities that turn primary products into something else

tertiary economic activites


quaternary economic activites

services concerned with information or the exchange of money or goods

quinary economic activites

services tied to research or higher education

plant domestification

the domestication of plants,marked the beginning of the First Agricultural Revolution

root crops

crops that are reproduced by cultivating either the roots or the cuttings from the plants

seed crops

plant that are reproduced by cultivating seeds

First Agricultural Revolution


animal domestification

the domestication of animals

subsistence agriculture

growing only enough food to survive

shifting cultivation

in which farmers farm another area when one becomes infertile

slash-and-burn agriculture

in which trees are cut down and all the rest of the vegetation is burned before planting, the ash serves as fertilizer

Second Agricultural Revolution

in which tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient

von Th�nen model

the first effort to organize the spatial character of economic activity, made of five concentric circles

Third Agricultural Revolution/Green Revolution

characterized by the introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation as a means of producing higher yields in crops such as rice, wheat, and corn

genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods

rectangular survey system

a survey system that appears as checkerboards across agricultural fields, AKA the Public Land Survey, used by the U.S. to parcel land west of the Appalachians

township-and-range system

a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to get Americans in the center of America (the literal one)

metes and bounds system

land survey system that divides land based on physical features, creates irregular parcels

long-lot survey system

in which land is divided into long parcels extending back from roads, canals, or rivers


system in which the eldest son receives all the land from his father (thought to be German)

commercial agriculture

agriculture of large-scale grain producers and cattle ranches, with mechanized equipment and factory-type labor forces, of plantations and profit


dependency on a single agricultural commodity, a major impact of colonial agriculture

K�ppen climatic classification system

a scheme for classifying the world's climates based on temperature and precipitation

climatic regions

areas with similar climate characteristics

plantation agriculture

in which cash crops are produced on large estates

livestock ranching

the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and by-products

Mediterranean agriculture

agriculture that occurs in areas with a Mediterranean climate

cash crops

crops cultivated solely for profit & consumption by other areas

luxury crops

non-sustenance crops


businesses that provide goods & services that support the local agriculture industry, connects local farms to a "web of production and exchange" & "fosters the spatial concentration of agriculture activities

food desert

areas with limited access to fresh, nutritious foods