AP Human Geograpy Vocab

Eratosthenes

first person to use the word geography

Mercator

map projection which longitude and latitude meet at a right angle

Peter's/Equal Area

map projection where area of land masses are accurate

Azimuthal/Planar

map projection centered around a single point

Winkel Tripel

Most accurate map projection

Meridian

imaginary arcs from pole to pole

Projection

turning Earth into a map (2D)

Distortion

what happens when you turn the Earth into a map, affects shape, size, distance, direction

Longitude

measuring system for meridian

Prime Meridian

0 degrees longitude; Greenwhich, England

International Date Line

180 degrees longitude

Parallel

imaginary circles around Earth parallel to equator

Latitude

measuring system for parallels

Time Zone

areas where every 15 degrees is one hour difference; 0 degrees is 12/12 day and night

Remote Sensing

satellite scans Earth's surface and transfers it to image

GPS

Global Positioning System; locate position

GIS

Geographic Information System; layers map and gather data

Place

a part of Earth distinguishable by features

Location

where on Earth

Toponym

name; usually named after history, orgin, land, culture

Site

physical features

Situation

location relative to other place

Region

area defined by characteristic

Cultural Landscape

cultural features and physical features

Formal/Uniform Region

region wherecharacteristic is present throughout

Functional/Nodal Region

region centralized around a point

Vernacular/Perceptual Region

a region people believe exists

Spatial Association

percentages depend on scale

Density

frequency of a characteristic is area

Diffusion

process in which a characeristic spreads

Relocation Diffusion

ideas spread though human migration

Heirarchical Diffusion

Idea spread from people of power/politic

Contagious Diffusion

diffusion of a widespread characteristic through people

Stimulus Diffusion

spreading of an idea where the idea changes but concept is the same

Distance Decay

chance of interaction decreases as distance increases

Pandemic

disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population (Bubonic Plague)

Intervening Opportunity

On way to destination, stay at inbetween because it has good opportunity

Intervening Obstacle

an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration (need visa)

Demographic Transition Model

The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth rate and death rate and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population (Japan i

Pro-natalist

supports human reproduction?

Anti-natalist

against human reproduction?

Refugee

people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion (Syrian)

Transnational Migration

have lived in two nations and are culturally part of both nations

Ravenstein's Laws

Migration Patterns dealing with distance, reasons, and characteristics (people mostly migrate for economic reasons)

Arithmetic Density

the total number of objects divided by the total land area (93 people /3 square miles)

Malthusian Theory

world's rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food supplies (population did grow)

Neo-Malthusian

belief that Malthusian's Theory will happen in the future

Zero Population Growth

a decline in total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero (in Stage 5)

Epidemiologic Transition

distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition (infectious diseases in Stage 2)

Agricultural Density

ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
(low agridensity in developed countries)

Emigration

migration from a location (from Syria)

Immigration

migration to a new location (to Germany)

Dependency Ratio

the number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to number of people active in the labor force (50.19)

Chain Migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there (person moves, the family moves)

Forced Migration

permanent movement usually compelled by cultural factors (slavery)

Crude Death Rate

the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society (9.33 UK)

Doubling Time

the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase (78 years for Canada)

Natural Increase

the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate (USA 5.45)

Population Pyramid

a bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex

Remittances

money sent for family in home country

Push Factor

a factor that induces people to leave old residences (bad job)

Pull Factor

a factor that induces people to leave old residences (nice weather)

Crude Birth Rate

the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society (13.2 in Australia)

Physiological Density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable agriculture (Egypt is 156 people per square kilometer)

Infant Mortality Rate

the total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year of age for every 1,000 live births in a society (49.4 globally)

Carrying Capacity

the amount of people that resources can support (10 billion people on Earth)

Internal Migration

permanent movement within a particular country (from MN to Tennessee)

Step Migration

a series of shorter migrations from origin to final destination
(person A from India to England to NY to MN)

Asylum Seeker

someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee (from middle-east, going to USA, claim is being processed)

Population Density

the number of people occupying an area of land (173 people/5 square miles= 34.6/square mile)

Voluntary Migration

permanent movement undertaken by choice (moving to USA for jobs)