APHG Chapter 7 Religion


a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities

Monotheistic Religion

belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe


religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster

Polytheistic Religion

belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe

Animistic Religion

the belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth

Universalizing Religion/Proselytic Faith

a belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope; adherents often believe that their religion represents universal truths , and in some cases great effort is undertaken in evangelism and missionary work

Ethnic Religion

a religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people; adherents do not actively seek converts through evangelism or missionary work


one of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan; unique among the world's religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or


a second or new birth

Caste System

the strict social segregation of people - specifically in India's Hindu society - on the basis of ancestry and occupation


a belief system which blends Hindu traditions with Islamic monotheistic traditions


religion founded in the sixth century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal;


located in Japan, related to Buddhism, focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship


religion believed to have been founded by Lao-Tsu and based upon his book entitled "Tao-te-ching," or "Book of the Way," Lao-Tsu focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature


the Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities; positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi ("life-breath") in favorable ways


a philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture


religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham, who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god; according to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which the Jews agree to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect


religion based on the teachings of Jesus; according to Christian teaching, Jesus is the son of God; placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's plan


the youngest of the major world religions, based on the teachings of Muhammad, born in Mecca; according to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelations during which Muhammad spoke the verses of the Qu'ran, t


adherents to the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalist; they believe in the effectiveness of family and community in solution of life's problems and they differ from the Shiites in accepting the traditions of Muhammad as authorita


adherents of one of the two main divisions of Islam; also known as Shiahs, they represent the Persian variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali


community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman - a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary


the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife


a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Later Day Saints movement

Sacred Sites/Sacred Space

place or space people infuse with religious meaning

Religious Toponym

refers to the origin and meaning of the names of religions


tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer


the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad

Interfaith Boundaries

boundaries between the world's major faiths

Intrafaith Boundaries

boundaries within a single major faith


a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country


a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory


The systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation

Ethnic Cleansing

the mass expulsion and killing of one ethnic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area


a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided, or of a group of religious leaders

Religious Fundamentalism

religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy

Religious Extremism

fundamentalism carried to the point of violence

Shari'a Law

the system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu'ranic law; unlike most western systems of law that are based on legal precedence; based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran


a doctrine within Islam; commonly translated as "Holy War," represents either a personal or collective struggle on part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu'ran

Cargo Cult Pilgrimage

belief that western goods had been traded to them by ancestral spirits