#### Ap human Geography Unit 2

Age distribution

The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. It is used to predict future population growth. An example would be that there are more young people living in a ocean side area and showing where the different age groups are in that ar

Carrying capacity

This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. This is important because it tells how many people an area will be able to support.

Cohort

Population of various age categories in a population pyramid. This is important because this can tell what state this country it is whether in Stage 3 or Stage 5 in the demographic transition model.

Demographic equation

The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in th

Demographic momentum

this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.

Demographic regions

Cape Verde is in Stage 2, Chile is in Stage 3, and Denmark is in Stage 4. This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.

Demographic Transition model

Has 4 steps. Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth, and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population growth. This is important because

Dependency ratio

The number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years. This is important because this tells how many people each worker supports. For example the larger population of dependents, the greater f

Diffusion of fertility control

The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world. In the U.S it's below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1, and in much of the Middle Ea

Disease diffusion

There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people. This is important in determining how the disease spread so you can predic

Doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. This is important because it can help project countries' population increase over the years and when its population will double. It is a projection and not me

Ecumene

The proportion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on.

Epidemiological Transition model

It correlates with the DTM model, just it tell the causes of death in each stage of the DTM. It is used to show causes of death in each stage.

Gendered space

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Infant mortality rate

The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Its is expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage. This is important because it tell how deve

J-curve

This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve. This is important because if the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food an

This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. Which shows as the world changes so do the

Malthus, Thomas

A population theorist who said: food production = linear; human reproduction = geometric; despite natural checks (famine, disease) ... will always be overpopulation; he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponential

Mortality

the relative frequency of how long life is in a given area. It is important to geography because it shows how developed the country is. An example is IMR, life expectancy.

Natality

This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area, it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society. This is important because it tells you the rate a country is having babies as well as how fas

Neo-Malthusian

theory that builds upon Malthus' thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC's, and outstripping of resources other than food. They are important to geography because they share some of the vies

Overpopulation

relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources. It is important to geography because problems result when an area's population exceeds the capacity of the environment to support them at an acceptable standard of livi

Population densities

1. the frequency with which something occurs in space is density.
a) Arithmetic density: total number of objects in an area. Used to compare distribution of population in different countries.
b) Physiological density: number of persons per unit of area su

Population distributions

the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern Used to describe how people are distributed within a given area.

Population explosion

a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide. Occurred in the late 18th and early 19th centuries because several countries moved on to stage 2 of the DTM. Can trace factors that lead to these explosions.

Population projection

predicts the future population of an area or the world. Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity.

Population pyramid

is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups. This is important because you can tell from the age distribution important characteristic of a country, whether hig

Rate of natural increase

the percentage by which a population grows in a year. CBR-CDR = NIR (excludes migration). Helps show the population over time.

S-curve

traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape as the letter "s". It is important to geography because it helps show the natural increase in population.

Sex ratio

The number of males per hundred females in the population. It is used to find out whether or not the country is gender specific.

Standard of living

refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population. Higher standards of living are found in MDC's rather than LDC's. Can help trace development.

Sustainability

providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future. Relates to development that meets today's needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Underpopulation

it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region's population. It is important to geography because it helps show natural increase.

Zero population growth

when the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero. It is important to geography because it shows natural increase, and how the population is changing.

Activity space

space allotted for a certain industry or activity. Can apply to an area within a city or surrounding a central place.

Chain migration

migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family to an existing community (initial migration created a "chain reaction") Can be seen from Mexico to the United States when guest workers set up homes and make mon

Cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally (e.g., activity (action) space - space within which daily activity occurs; commuting, seasonal, nomadism).

Distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin. Typically, the farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact. (Electronic devices such as the inter

Forced

People removed from their countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government.

Gravity model

Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.

Internal migration

permanent movement with the same country.

Intervening opportunity

the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away

Migration patterns

1. A pattern of permanent movement from one place to another.
a) Intercontinental- Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent.
b) Interregional- Permanent movement from one region of the country to another.
c) Rural-u

Migratory movement

Where migrants move to

Periodic movement

movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation (e.g., military service, migrant workers, college attendance ) This is important to geography because it will show how there is different movement within a country.

Personal space

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Place utility

The desirability and usefulness of a place to the individual or to a group such as the family. Factors such as housing, finance, amenity, and the characteristics of the neighbourhood are perceived by the individual or group as being satisfactory or unsati

Push-pull factors

1. Push factors: incentives for people to leave a place (e.g., harsh climate, economic recession, political turmoil)
Pull factors: attractions that draw migrants to a place (pleasant climate, employment, education)

Refugee

1. people who leave their homes because they are forced out (but not because they are officially relocated (Nazis forcing Jews into ghettos) or enslaved. Most refugees 1) move without any more tangible property than what they can carry or transport with t

Space-time prism

set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point

Step migration

migration to a destination that occurs in stages

Transhumance

movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures)

Transmigration

the mass resettlement of people within a country to alleviate overcrowding or localized overpopulation.

Voluntary

movement in which people relocate in response to new opportunities.