Unit Two Vocabulary From Textbook AP Human Geography

Push Factor

This induces people to move out of their present location.

Pull Factor

This induces people to move to a new location.


People that have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution.

Intervening Obstacle

An environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration.

International Migration

Permanent movement from one country to another.

Internal Migration

The permanent movement within the same country.

Interregional Migration

The movement from one region of a country to another.

Intraregional Migration

The movement within one region.

Undocumented Immigrants

People that enter a country without proper documents.


The maximum number of people that can immigrate to the United States from each country in a 1 year period.

Brain Drain

The large scale emigration of talented people.

Guest Workers

Citizens from poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East.


Net migration from urban areas to rural areas.

Thomas Malthus

The first person to believe that the population was outrunning its resources.

Epidemiologic Transition

Focuses on the distinctive causes of death in each stage.


The branch of medical science concerned with incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.


A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects an exceptionally high population of people.


The permanent move to another place.


Migration from a location.


Migration to a location.

Net Migration

The difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants.


A more general term meaning all types of movement from one place to another.


The short term movements that occur on a regular basis.

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society.

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society.

Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

The percentage by which a population grows in a year.

Doubling Time

The number of years for a population to double.

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

The number of children a woman will have in her childbearing years.

Life Expectancy Rate

The average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels.

Demographic Transition

A process of several stages which a country goes through.

Agricultural Revoloution

When humans first domesticated plants and animals.

Industrial Revoloution

A conjunction of major improvements of industrial technology.

Medical Revoloution

Medicine was invented in Europe and North America and diffused to LDCs.

Zero Population Growth (ZPG)

When the CDR and CBR are almost equal. Is applied to stage four countries.

Dependency Ratio

The number of people who are either too young or too old to work.

Sex Ratio

The number of males per 100 females in a population.

Developed Countries

Richer Countries

Developing Countries

Poorer Countries

Population Distibution

Where people live and how population changes.

Population Growth Rate

How fast the population is growing.


Rural people moving to cities.


When too many people move to a city and overwhelm the city's public facilities.

Capital Resources

Includes money, buildings and equipment needed for developing industry and trade.

Birth Rate

Number of births per 1,000 people per year.

Death Rate

Number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.

Standard of Living

A population's average level of necessities, comforts, and benefits.

Infant Mortality Rate

The number of children who die before reaching age one.

Population Pyramid

Used to compare the population characteristics of different communities and nations.


The scientific study of population characteristics.


Not simply the matter of the number of people, but the relationship between the people and the number of resources.


The portion of the Earth occupied by permanent human settlement.

Dry Lands

Land too dry to farm on, which cover about 20 percent of the Earth's surface.

Wet Lands

Lands that receive very high levels of precipitation which may be inhospitable for human occupation.

Cold Land

Much of the land near the North and South poles which is covered with ice or permafrost.

High Land

Land at very high elevations where few people live.

Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the land area.

Physiological Density

The number of people supported by a unit of arable land.

Agricultural Density

The number of farmers to arable land.

Stage One

This stage has low growth. This is the time that the agricultural revolution happened.

Stage Two

This stage has high growth. This includes the industrial revolution.

Stage Three

This stage has moderate growth. This is when the CBR drops sharply and the CDR continues to decline.

Stage Four

This stage has low growth. This is where the NIR approaches zero (ZPG).

Stage Five

This stage doesn't technically exist, but it is when the CDR is higher then the CBR.