AP Human Geography Rubenstein: Chapter 6 Religion

Universalizing Religion

A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular religion.


Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principals of a religion.

Ethnic Religion

A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principals are likely to be based on physical characteristics of that location.


A large and fundamental division within a religion.


A division of a branch that unites people in a local congregation.


A relatively small group that has broken away from a denomination.


The belief of the existence of only one God.


Belief in and worship of more than one god.


Belief that objects, like rocks and plants, or natural events, like earthquakes, have a spirit and conscious life.


A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.


A neighborhood in a city set up to house only Jews. Now used to describe a part of a city inhabited by a minority group.


A journey to a religious place.

Hierarchical Religion

A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.

Autonomous Religion

A religion without a central authority. They share ideas and cooperate informally.

Caste System

The system in which you are born into a class or caste. Distinct order in which Hindus are assigned. Can't marry outside of a caste. Higher and lower status depending on your caste.


-14 million
-Leaders are called Rabbis
-Read from the Torah and Talmud
-10 commandments
-Worship in synagogue and shul


-900 million
-polytheism (Brahman, Vishnu, and Shiva)
-No religious leaders
-Worship in temples
-Rules are Karma
-Symbol called Aum or Om


-360 million
-Not monotheistic or polytheistic
-Worship Buddah
-Leaders are Dahli lama and monks
-Scared writings are called Sutras
-Worship in temples
-Symbol is the Darhma Wheel


-1 billion
-monotheistic (Allah)
-Religious leader is Imam
-book is Qur'an
-worship in mosques
-called muslims


-2 billion
-lots of religious leaders (priests, bishops, reverends, pastors, etc.)
-worship in churches, cathedrals, temples, etc.

Roman Catholic

-Dominant in the southwest and east of Europe
-40% in the United States
- ~90% of Latin America


-Dominant in the northwest of Europe
-28% in the Unites States


-83% of Muslims
-Arabic for "People following the example of Muhammed


-16% of Muslims
-Arabic for the word "sectarian"
-90% of the population in Iran


-"Sikhs" is the Hindi word for "disciples"
-Located in South Asia
-Leaders are Gurus
-Guru Granth Sahib, or The Holy Granth of Enlightenment, is their holy scripture


-Established in China
-Chinese tradition of "li", or "correct behavior"
-Controlled daily life in China
-Rooted in Chinese traditions

Daoism (Taoism)

-Focus on mystical and magical aspects of life
-Myths to explain events
-Banned in China, but still practiced
-Legal in Taiwan


-Ethnic religion of Japan
-Forces of nature are divine
-Ancient rituals and prayers
-Japanese emperors were "divine"
-Shrines for deities

5 Pillars of Faith (Islam)

1. Shahadah (Allah is the only God)
2. Salah (Pray 5 times a day)
3. Zakah (Charity)
4. Sawn (Fast during Ramadan)
5. Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)

4 Noble Truths (Buddhism)

1. Suffering is a part of life
2. Suffering comes from desire
3. There is no end to suffering unless we end desire
4. The Noble 8-fold path