Crude birth rate

the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

Total fertility rate

The number of children who would be born per woman (or per 1,000 women) if she/they were to pass through the childbearing years bearing children according to a current schedule of age-specific fertility rates.


Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth. Overpopulation is caused by number of factors. Reduced mortality rate, better medical facilities, depletion of precious resour

Anti-natalist policies

Pronatalism is the encouragement of child birth (usually in a certain country).

Pro-natalist policies

Natalism promotes child-bearing and parenthood as desirable for social reasons and to ensure the continuance of humanity.

Life expectancy

a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including sex.

Infant mortality rate

The infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per 1,000 live births. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Demographic transition model

is a model that describes population change over time. It is based on an interpretation begun in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson, of the observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the past

Epidemiological transition model

Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a speical time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
(Measures to cont

Crude death rate

the number of deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

Rate of natural increase

The result is the rate of natural increase in percentage form.

Malthusian theory

the human populations grow exponentially (doubling with each cycle) while food production grows at an arithmetic rate (by the repeated addition of a uniform increment in each uniform interval of time).

Population distribution

the pattern of where people live. World population distribution is uneven. Places which are sparsely populated contain few people. Places which are densely populated contain many people.

Population density

is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans.

Arithmetic population

Arithmetic growth refers to the situation where a population increases by a constant number of persons (or other objects) in each period being analysed.

Physiological population density

The physiological density or real population density is the number of people per unit area of arable land. A higher physiological density suggests that the available agricultural land is being used by more and may reach its output limit sooner than a coun

Carrying capacity

the largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support. Cohort. a population group that's distinguished by a certain characteristic.

Agricultural population density

A large difference between the arithmetic and physiological densities indicates that a small percentage of a region's land is capable of growing crops. The agricultural densities in less developed countries are higher because farmers often cannot afford m

Age-sex composition

One of the most useful tools to study population.
Shows the percentage of total population in five-year age groups with youngest at the base and oldest at the top.
Length of bar represents the percentage of the total population in that group.
Although it'

Graph/population pyramid

Fertility and mortality vary not only from country to country but also over time within a country. As a result, the number of people in different age groups in a country forms a pattern.

Sex Ratio

Is the number of males per 100 females in the population.

Dependency ratio

Is the number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years.

Industrial Revolution

Better agriculture and production. More control over our lives. We had some - neolithic revolution but it isn't until better medicine and understanding of health and sanitation that our population rates begin to change.

Diversity of population problems in the world?

More people are alive at this time than at any other point in Earth's history.
The world's population has increased at a faster rate during second half of the twentieth century than ever before in history.
Virtually all global population growth is concent

Population structure

When children reach the age of leaving school, jobs must be found and the government has to provide resources.
A "graying" population places a burden on meeting their needs for income and medical care after they retire.


Is the scientific study of population characteristics. Demographers look statistically at how people are distributed spatially by age, gender, occupation, fertility, health, and so on.

Where Do People Live?

people want to live on the most desirable land applies at any scale, or level of analysis by size. As the scale of inquiry changes, the relevance of certain factors such as climate, elevation, and industrialization changes as well.
There are two main cate

Physical Factors that Influence Population Distribution?

People desire natural resources, such as forest products and minerals.

Human Factors that Influence Population Distribution?

Cultural and political situations often result in new distributions of particular groups of people.

The Implications of Distribution and Density?

Economic, political, and social processes.
Environment and natural resources.
Infrastructure and urban services.

Pyramid feature

Many factors can affect a population pyramid. An asymmetrical pyramid, one with significant differences between cohorts, suggests that something notable happened in the population. The viewer of the pyramid will need to determine what historical event cau

Causes of Population Change

Role of Women in Society/Changes in Fertility
Family Planning/Birth Control
*Life Expectancy - better food production and nutrition, advances in public sanitation, improvements in healthcare.
Government Programs to Reduce Births
Government Policie

What can a government do to limit births?

Legalize abortion/sterilization
Train family planning program workers
Legalize contraception/buy and supply contraceptives
Higher taxes
Higher maternity costs/education costs for addition children
Short maternity leave
Payment for not having kids

What can a government do to promote births?

Tax breaks
No abortions
No contraception
Better jobs
Better housing
Trophies? Medals?

Stage 1: High Stationary

Population level was directly influenced by the environment.

Stage 2: Early Expanding

High birth rate - but still drops slightly? Birth control/health care? Low death rate - medical revolution helps people live longer.

Stage 3: Late Expanding

Birth rate still higher than death rate - population going up.

Stage 4: Low Stationary

Birth and death rate almost equal - no room for natural increase. Population is starting to level off.

Stage 5: Declining

From little or no natural increase to little or no natural increase.
Low birthrate -> low number of childbearing women.
Future populations depends primarily on fertility.

Demographic Balancing Equation

Total Population Change = Births - Deaths + Immigrants - Emigrants

Components of Population Growth

Crude birth rate (CBR)
Crude death rate (CDR)
Natural increase rate (NIR)/Rate of natural increase (RNI)
Total fertility rate (TFR)
Demographic Balancing Equation

China's Population Policies

Pronatalist at first - Mao was against population control in 1959.
Concerns about overpopulation led to anti-natalist policies, programs to decrease the number of births.
1972 - "Later, longer, fewer"
1979 - One Child Policy; ended in 2016... sorta...