Ch. 8 Political Geography

anocracy

a country that is not fully democratic or fully autocratic, but rather displays a mix of the two types (pg. 282)

autocracy

a country that is run according to the interests of the ruler rather than the people (pg. 282)

boundary

an invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory (pg. 276)

buffer state

a small neutral state between two rival powers

city-state

a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediately surrounding countryside (pg. 266)

colonialism

an attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory (pg. 274)

colony

a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent (pg. 274)

compact state

a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly (pg. 280)

cultural political boundary

boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity

democracy

a country in which citizens elect leaders and can run for office (pg. 282)

devolution

the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality

elongated state

a state with a long, narrow shape (pg. 280)

enclave

an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it

exclave

a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

Generally a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coast. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles apart. When an overlap occurs, it

federal state

an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government (pg. 283)

fragmented state

a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory (pg. 281)

frontier

a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control (pg. 276)

geometric (political) boundary

a political border drawn in a regular, geometric manner, often a straight line, without regard for environmental or cultural patterns

geopolitics

the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state

gerrymandering

the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power (pg. 284)

(Mackinder) Heartland Theory

Mackinder's hypothesis: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world Mackinder's Heartland (also known as the Pivot Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the

imperialism

any instance of aggressive extension of authority

landlocked state

a stat that does not have a direct outlet to the sea (pg. 281)

Law of the Sea

Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.

Median-line principle

an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.

microstate

a statet that encompasses a very small land area (pg. 261)

nation-state

a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that ahs been transformed into a nationality (pg. 267)

Organic Theory

A country, behaves like an organism-to survive, a state requires nourishment, or territory, to gain political power.

perforated state

a state that completely surrounds anouther one (pg. 281)

physical (natural) political boundary

natural boundary might be something like a river, mountain range or an ocean. These are generally considered to be obstructions which prevent crossing without additional equipment or assistance, such as a boat or horses to carry what you need to cross a m

prorupted state

an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension (pg. 280)

Rimland Theory

Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest

sovereignty

ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

state

an area organized into a political and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs (pg. 261)

superimposed boundary

Boundary line drawn in an are ignoring the existing cultural pattern

supranationalism

a venture involving 3 or more national states political economic or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives

terrorism

the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands (pg. 290)

theocracy

a state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders

unitary state

an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials (pg. 283)