Rise of the Papacy & Crusades Vocab

Lay Investiture Controversy

The people that the king or nobels usually APPOINTED often used the church's influence and power in devious ways

lay investure

a ceremony in which kings and nobels (usually secular) appoint their agents to become high church officials


the buying and SELLING of church offices to people who wanted to use the church to wicked ends

Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven

The way the church interpretted Matthew 16 Saint Peter with given the keys by Jesus because he was The Rock the church was to be built on; sacraments; the popes control salvation

King Lothar

King of France; divorced his wife to marry his lover, then was forced to divorce his lover to marry his ex wife

Pope Nicolas I

Forest Lothar to stay with his wife; said that marriage is a sacrament and Kings must be good examples

Pope Nicolas I

produced a "forgery" document called the Donation of Constantine

Donation of Constantine

A document that claimed Constantine gave all of Western Europe to the popes as a fief forever. This document gave popes tremendous power over the lords of Europe

Lorenzo Valla

Proved that the Donation of Constantine was indeed a forgery was a forgery because it didn't represent Constantine's view

Pope Gregory VII

Wanted to win back lost powers after Nicholas I; wanted to see a powerful Christian church with a pure message; people of Rome acclaimed him as pope without going through procedures

Pope Gregory VII

claimed all popes feet should be kissed as a sign of submission

Henry IV

Defied Pope Gregory VII rule by appointed 3 bishops without Pope Gregory's consent;
Called Pope Gregory a false monk who stole the throne from Saint Peter

Gregory VII

threatened to excommunicate Henry; condemned Henry and made it a sin for Henry's people to support him;

Henry IV

begged for forgiveness but forced to stand in snow barefoot for 3 days before Pope Gregory VII

Henry IV

was forgiven by the pope but got revenge for making him kiss his feet and attacked Rome


Being kicked out of the Roman Catholic Church and being rejected salvation

Innocent III

Most powerful pope of Middle Ages.
Taught that kings only receive power and glory from the pope (WE HAV POWER OVER YOU); Believe that he was to earthly rulers as the sun is to the moon; stopped king John from appointing John de gray as archbishop of Cante

King John

Out of anger, King of England who raised taxes, took all the church's property, and convicted all is enemies and monks of treason

Innocent III

Responding to King John's actions, he threatened to place all of England under the interdict.

King John

He became poor after fighting with France and forced to sign the Magna Carta, in exchange for help with Pope Innocent

Innocent III

ordered "all godly princes" to invade england. France responded to this claim


to forbid, to prohibit all of the sacraments

Magna carta

a document signed by King John during his battle with Pope Innocent III constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges; prevented the king from gaining too much power
The first move toward democracy in England


Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks
80& of Christian world hadbeen conquered by Islam

Peter the Hermit

Told stories of Christians being murdered by turks, Christ's to being closed to pilgrims, and Jerusalem in rubble; had a vision of Christ telling him to purge the holy land of Muslim control;

Peter the Hermit

Launched the 1st Crusade set out with 40,000 followers, had only 7000 left alive when reached Constantinople

Pope Urban II

Move to action by Peter the hermits vision; so he preached his own sermon moved thousands to a commitment to free Jerusalem;
he convinced and promised eternal life in heaven to anyone participating in the crusades (islamic concept of jihad)

Peoples Crusades

Before the "1st Crusdae" ,Was never a sanctioned by the church of king
Pope innocent III barely prepared men and women; children fought to battle but ultimately were killed
Peter the Hermit came in with 40,000, left w 7,000
A German group massacred the Je

People's Crusade

In this batt;e, the Turks killed the remaining of 7000 people from Peter the Hermit's group and built a pyramid of their skulls

Battle of Jerusalem

20,000 crusaders reached Jerusalem in 1099AD; they massacred the cities population of Jews and Muslims


Crusaders conquer Jerusalem, and massacred the city's population of Muslims & jews in the 1st Crusade


In the 2nd Crusade, this Ayyubid Turk destroyed the crusader army at the battle of the Horn of Hitten after the Turkish victory at Damascus

Richard the Lion-Hearted

The only crusader left who represented England in the 3rd Crusade after Germany and France left; signed a treaty with Saladin that allowed Christians to visit Jerusalem during the day as pilgrims


4th Crusade sacks Constantinople

Crusaders sacking of Constantinople in 1204AD

4 Crusade, they attacked the wrong city. The city was weak so it was easy to sack (loot) The city and Muslims took over and named it Istanbul (they never went to the Holy Land).


End of the Crusades

Why did people think the Children's Crusade would work?

It was believed that because of their purity in God's eyes

Children's Crusade

short-lived failed crusade in 1212 by children from europe who marched on the holy land to regain it for christianity. But failed when greedy merchants who were transporting them sold them as slaves to Muslims.


The last Christian stronghold/port that fell to Muslims

Fall of Constantinople in

Because of what the Crusaders did in the 4th Crusade, Eastern Europe was weak and fell to the Ottomans


System of theology and philosophy taught in medieval universities that focused on Aristotle's logic

St Francis

Was born into a wealthy family of Assisi who partied; he was captured in the war; questioned whether happiness could be found in pursuit of wealth and power;


Has a vision of crucified jesus looking at him telling him to rebuild his church but didn't realize Jesus meant the entire medieval church bc it was corrupt and ruined

St Francis

Francis gave away his possessions, left Assisi to rebuild the ruined church outside, San Domino

Sant Francis

spoke to pope innocent III and got approval from him by reciting from Jesus' Sermon on the Mount. Because of Innocent's approval, his followers grew and led them in caring for the poor, ill, and other neglected members of society


Created Catholic theology; was a scholar; combined faith with philosophical principles of reason