lewis dot structure
are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule
a compound regarded as a union of molecules retaining their identities (as in boron trifluoride-ethyl ether BF3.(C2H5)2O) � called also addition compound; compare double salt 2
also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons
polar covalent bond
Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms
non polar covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other.
A multiple bond is a bond where two or more electron pairs are shared between two atoms. Examples: Double and triple bonds are multiple bonds.
coordinate covalent bond
A type of covalent bond in which both the shared electrons are contributed by one of the two atoms.
bond dissociation energy
is one measure of the strength of a chemical bond. It can be defined as the standard enthalpy change when a bond is cleaved by homolysis, with reactants and products of the homolysis reaction at 0 K (absolute zero).
molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements. The prefix di- is of Greek origin, meaning "two". If a diatomic molecule consists of two atoms of the same element, such as hydrogen (H2) or oxygen (O2), then it is said to be homonuclear.
Triatomic molecules are molecules composed of three atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements. Examples include H2O, CO2 (pictured) and HCN.
a colorless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odor and powerful oxidizing properties, formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light. It differs from normal oxygen (O2) in having three atoms in its molecule (O3)
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit. The prefix poly- means "many," in Greek, but even ions of two atoms are commonly referred to as polyatomic
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements. The prefix di- is of Greek origin, meaning "two". If a diatomic molecule consists of two atoms of the same element, such as hydrogen (H2) or oxygen (O2), then it is said to be homonuclear.
Resonance structures are two forms of a molecule where the chemical connectivity is the same but the electrons are distributed differently around the structure. Resonance occurs when electrons can flow through neighboring pi systems
Atomic orbitals are regions of space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is likely to be found. Atomic orbitals allow atoms to make covalent bonds. The most commonly filled orbitals are s, p, d, and f. S orbitals have no angular nodes and are spherical
hybrid atomic orbitals
Hybrid orbitals are the result of a model which combines atomic orbitals on a single atom in ways that lead to a new set of orbitals that have geometries appropariate to form bonds in the directions predicted by the VSEPR model
is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region.
is the acronym for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory. VESPR is a model used to predict the geometry of molecules based on minimizing the electrostatic repulsion of a molecule's valence electrons around a central atom
Triatomic molecules are molecules composed of three atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements. Examples include H2O, CO2 (pictured) and HCN
In chemistry, the term "bent" can be applied to certain molecules to describe their molecular geometry. Certain atoms, such as oxygen, will almost always set their two (or more) covalent bonds in non-collinear directions due to their electron configuration
is a molecular geometry model with one atom at the center and three atoms at the corners of an equilateral triangle, called peripheral atoms, all in one plane. In an ideal trigonal planar species, all three ligands are identical and all bond angles are 120�.
is a molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base, resembling a tetrahedron (not to be confused with the tetrahedral geometry). When all three atoms at the corners are identical, the molecule belongs to point group C3v.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners
In chemistry a trigonal bipyramid formation is a molecular geometry with one atom at the center and 5 more atoms at the corners of a triangular dipyramid.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. The term is most commonly used to refer to the regular octahedron, a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral triangles, four of which meet at each vertex.
The square planar molecular geometry in chemistry describes the stereochemistry (spatial arrangement of atoms) that is adopted by certain chemical compounds. As the name suggests, molecules of this geometry have their atoms positioned at the corners of a square on the same plane about a central atom.
The shape of the orbitals is trigonal bipyramidal. Two of the equatorial orbitals contain lone pairs of electrons. The three atoms are arranged around the central atom to form a T-shaped molecule.
Also called dipole. Contemporary definitions for polar molecule. noun. an asymmetric molecule with non-uniform positive and negative charges; also called dipole. A polar molecule has a partial positive charge in one part of the molecule and complementary negative charge in another part.
non polar molecule
Atoms are made of small particles. ... When atoms bond together to form molecules, they share or give electrons. If the electrons are shared equally by the atoms, then there is no resulting charge, and the molecule is nonpolar. Polar molecules are the opposite and have a positive or negative charge
are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
is any force that holds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound. This includes all types of chemical bonds. They are usually stronger than intermolecular forces, which are present between atoms or molecules that are not bonded.
A hydrogen bond is an electrostatic attraction between two polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom covalently bound to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F) experiences the electrostatic field of another highly electronegative atom nearby.
a pair of equal and oppositely charged or magnetized poles separated by a distance.
Dipole-Dipole interactions result when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space. When this occurs, the partially negative portion of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive portion of the second polar molecule
london dispersion forces
The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force. The London dispersion force is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles. This force is sometimes called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction.
van der waals forces
weak, short-range electrostatic attractive forces between uncharged molecules, arising from the interaction of permanent or transient electric dipole moments.
A network solid or covalent network solid is a chemical compound (or element) in which the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network extending throughout the material. In a network solid there are no individual molecules, and the entire crystal or amorphous solid may be considered a macromolecule.
electron domain geometry
In chemistry, the electron domain refers to the number of lone pairs or bond locations around a particular atom in a molecule. Electron domains may also be called electron groups. Bond location is independent of whether the bond is a single, double or triple bond.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.
Hydrate, any compound containing water in the form of H 2O molecules, usually, but not always, with a definite content of water by weight. The best-known hydrates are crystalline solids that lose their fundamental structures upon removal of the bound water.
join or be joined securely to something else, typically by means of an adhesive substance, heat, or pressure
unshared pair of electrons
a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atom and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair. Lone pairs are found in the outermost electron shell of atoms. They can be identified by using a Lewis structure.
an uncharged molecule (typically highly reactive and short-lived) having an unpaired valence electron
A pi bond (? bond) is a covalent bond formed between two neighboring atom's unbonded p-orbitals. ... Double and triple bonds between atoms are usually made up of a single sigma bond and one or two pi bonds. Pi bonds are generally denoted by the Greek letter ?, in reference to the p orbital.
are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond. They are formed by head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals. Sigma bonding is most simply defined for diatomic molecules using the language and tools of symmetry groups.
is an analytical method used to separate colored chemicals or substances. It is primarily used as a teaching tool, having been replaced by other chromatography methods, such as thin-layer chromatography.