Infections of GI System

All of the following are components of the gastrointestinal tract except:
a. Spleen
b. Pharynx
c. Esophagus
d. Stomach

a. Spleen

Microbial life on teeth was first observed by:
a. Jenner
b. Semmelweis
c. van Leeuwenhoek
d. Pasteur

c. van Leeuwenhoek

Many peptic ulcers are due to:
a. Salmonella typhi
b. Helicobacter pylori
c. Shigella boydii
d. Salmonella enterica

b. Helicobacter pylori

Bacillary dysentery is also called:
a. Salmonellosis
b. Shigellosis
c. Typhoid fever
d. Campylobacteriosis

b. Shigellosis

There are __________ known forms of gastroenteritis caused by E. coli.
a. Two
b. Three
c. Four
d. Five

d. Five

Bacillus intoxication is caused by:
a. Bacillus subtilis
b. Bacillus thuringiensis
c. Bacillus anthracis
d. Bacillus cereus

d. Bacillus cereus

The most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and children is by:
a. Noroviruses
b. Adenoviruses
c. Rotaviruses
d. Caliciviruses

c. Rotaviruses

A group of (+) ssRNA viruses that have been isolated from birds, cats, dogs, pigs, sheep, cows, and humans, and are a major cause of gastroenteritis, are:
a. Rotaviruses
b. Caliciviruses
c. Adenoviruses
d. Noroviruses

b. Caliciviruses

Which of the following organisms produce aflatoxin, a car-cinogenic substance?
a. Candida albicans
b. Claviceps purpurea
c. Aspergillus flavus
d. Staphylococcus aureus

c. Aspergillus flavus

The human pinworm Enterobius vermicularis lives in the __________ of humans.
a. Duodenum
b. Ileum
c. Transverse colon
d. Rectum

d. Rectum

A periodontal disease that is restricted to the gums is an inflammation called ___________.


The term "stomach flu" really refers to _______________.


Botulism is caused by ____________.

Clostridium botulinum

Staphylococcal intoxications is caused by staphylococcus __________.


Thrush" is caused by _____________.

Candida albicans

Differentiate between bacterial infection and bacterial intoxication.

Bacterial infection�occurs when a pathogen enters the gastrointestinal tract, adheres and multiplies.
Bacterial intoxication�occurs when toxins produced by bacteria contaminate food or water, which are then introduced to the human body.

Describe the cause, transmission, symptoms, prevention, and treatment of cholera.

Cholera�cause: Vibrio cholerae, a gram-negative curved rod
Transmission: ingestion of contaminated water or food
Symptoms: vomiting, muscle cramps, severe watery diarrhea
Prevention: appropriate water treatment and sanitation systems; a preventative vacci

Describe rotavirus infections; include prevalence, transmission, prevention and treatment.

Prevalence: most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and children worldwide.
Transmission: contaminated food or water
Prevention: vaccines are available. WHO established the Rotavirus Vaccine Program (RVP) to address the problem.
Treatment: pri

Discuss giardiasis; include causative agent, transmission, symptoms, and treatment.

Cause: the protozoan Giardia lamblia
Transmission: contaminated water
Symptoms: malaise, nausea, weakness, weight loss, cramps, diarrhea
Treatment: metronidazole, furazolidone, tinidazole, quinacrine

Name and discuss the two organisms that cause hookworm infections in humans.

Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus are capable of causing human hookworm
infections. The adult worms reach the intestine, where they attach themselves to the villi and suck blood to obtain nutrition. Symptoms can range from abdominal discomfort,