Research Exam 1

What are the two ways nurses participate in research? What specific actions will a nurse take in each of these roles?

1. Consumer: read research to keep current in practice
2. producer: actively design & carry out studies
� Ways to engage in research:
Ideas for a clinical inquiry
Collect research information
Advise clients about participating
in a study
Search for resear

What was the first journal published to help propel research in nursing? When was it published (decade)?

Nursing Research, 1950's

How did the NIH and NINR help to promote nursing research?

NIH promoted and financially supported research projects and training related to patient care.
NINR helped put nursing research more into the mainstream of research activities enjoyed by other health disciplines.

What are the sources of evidence for nursing research? Give examples.

- Tradition & Authority: weakest, don't want to use, based on untested things
- Clinical Experience: trial & error
- Assembled info: statistics
- Disciplined research: best source of information

Define Paradigm

a worldview, a general perspective on the world's complexities; how you choose to view the world

What are the two main types of Paradigms?

positivist & constructivist

assumption of positivist paradigm

there is a reality out there that can be studied and known; the world is driven by real, natural causes

characteristics of positivist paradigm

Research is aimed at understanding the underlying causes of natural phenomena
Positivists prize objectivity; bias is put aside
Use an orderly, disciplined approach to research with tight controls
Very rational, scientific

key concepts of positivist paradigm

1. reality exists
2. there is objectivity & things are quantifiable (can out a number to it)
3. work on a pre-specified design

assumption of constructivist paradigm

knowledge is maximized when the distance between the inquirer and participants in the study is minimized.

characteristics of constructivist paradigm

� During research, the researcher and subject interact
� Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable
- believe there's different versions of reality based on personal experience (reality isn't fixed)
- in the middle of it, personal

Define Scientific Method

collection of data in orderly & systematic way

Which paradigm is most closely related to the Scientific Method? Why?

positivist paradigm; use objective methods to control the research in order to minimize bias & increase validity; gathers empirical evidence
(quantitative research method)

What are the five purposes of Nursing Research?

identification, description, exploration, prediction & control, explanation

In regards to EBP, what are the five purposes of research?

therapy/intervention, diagnosis/assessment, prognosis, etiology/cause/harm, meaning/process

Define Evidence-Based Practice.

The integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values
- begins with the clinical question (what does the evidence say is the best approach to solve this clinical problem?)

Define Research Utilization.

the use of findings from studies in a practical application that is unrelated to the original research
- begins with the research itself (How do I integrate this?)

Define Evidence hierarchy. What is the highest form of evidence according to the hierarchy? Why is this type of research considered to be the best evidence?

A ranked arrangement of the validity and dependability of evidenced based on the rigor of the method that produced it; the traditional evidence hierarchy is appropriate primarily for cause probing research
- highest level: systematic review; careful synth

What are three challenges to EBP? Give examples or describe each.

1. Quality & Nature of the research: Limited availability of strong research evidence for some practice areas & need for research that directly address pressing clinical problems and for replicating studies in a range of settings remains a challenge
2. Ch

two main categories of Pre-Appraised Evidence?

systematic reviews & clinical practice guidelines and care bundles

systematic reviews

Provides a review of all key evidence on a topic to answer EBP questions
More rigorous than a literature review
Various forms: Narrative integration
Meta analysis
(quantitative) Metasynthesis
- summary of someone else's report

clinical practice guidelines & care bundles

CPG-distill a body of evidence into a usable format
Often based on systematic reviews
Care Bundle-encompasses a set of interventions to treat or prevent a specific cluster of symptoms
Find by searching guideline databases
Evaluate using appraisal instrume

True or False: a single study is not pre-appraised evidence.


What are the parts of a PIO and PICO question?

- Population
- Intervention
- Outcome
- Population
- Intervention
/alternative intervention
- Outcome

What are the seven assessments for appraising evidence to be used in EBP?

Evidence quality
Magnitude of effects
Precision of estimates
Peripheral effects
Financial costs
Clinical relevance
Actions based on evidence appraisals

What are the steps to using EBP in an organization?

-Select problem:
Problem focused
Knowledge focused
-Appraise implementation potential:
Formal process
-Evidence appraisal:
Is it justified to implement this change?
-Implementing and evaluating the innovation:
Pilot test

dependent variable

The outcome the researchers want to understand, explain, or predict. Corresponds with the Outcome in the PICO question.

independent variable

The presumed cause; Corresponds with the Intervention plus the Comparison in the PICO question. What we manipulate

conceptual definition

the theoretical meaning of a concept; like looking it up in a dictionary

operational definition

indicates what the researches specifically must do to measure the concept & collect needed info
ex: cholesterol levels within a certain range

What is the difference between quantitative data and qualitative data?

� Quantitative Data-information in numeric form
� Qualitative Data-narrative descriptions
� Relationship-a connection between phenomena
� Quantitative studies: More than or less than; relationship between independent variables and outcomes; cause and effe

Define cause-and-effect relationships.

A relationship between two variables wherein the presence or value of one variable (" the cause") determines the presence or value of the other ("the effect")

What are two types of Quantitative research and what is the goal of each of these?

- Experimental: Researchers actively introduce an intervention or treatment; ex:
For patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, does music use decrease pain levels post operatively?
- Non-experimental: Researchers collect data without introducing treatment

identify and define three disciplines of qualitative research.

� Grounded Theory: Seeks to describe and understand key social psychological processes
� Phenomenology: Concerned with the lived experiences of humans
� Ethnography: Studies the patterns of lifeways of a defined cultural group in a holistic fashion

Outline the steps of Quantitative Research

Phase 1: conceptual
1. Formulating and delimiting the problem
2. Reviewing the related literature
3. Undertaking clinical fieldwork
4. Defining the framework/ developing conceptual definitions
5. Formulating hypotheses
Phase 2: design and planning

How does the implementation of a qualitative research study differ from that of a qualitative study?

Quantitative: linear progression of tasks- researchers plan what steps to take and then follow those steps.
Qualitative: progression is closer to a circle than a straight line. Qualitative researchers continually examine and interpret data and make decisi

In Qualitative studies, when do researchers stop collecting data? How do the researchers know when to stop collecting data?

data is collected until experiences are redundant/saturated
no new information can be gleaned by further data

How are research findings disseminated from both qualitative and quantitative studies?

professional journals, conferences, etc

What does it mean when a peer reviewer conducts a blind review?

Reviewers are not told researchers' names and authors are not told reviewers' names
Peer reviewers make recommendations about acceptance of or revisions to the manuscript

What is the IMRAD format for research articles and what information is contained in each section?

Research question and context
Literature review
Research design
Measurement tools
Study procedures
Data analysis
Presentation of findings
Statistical tests and results
Significance of results
- Discussion:

What is a research critique?

An objective assessment of a study's strengths and limitations (not your opinion)


-An integral part of doing and critiquing research
-A conclusion drawn from the study evidence using logical reasoning and taking into account the methods used to generate that evidence:
Researchers hope for the results that lend themselves to making infe


Refers to the accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study
Associated with the methods used to measure variables


The soundness of the study's evidence
Important criterion for evaluating methods to measure variables


Encompasses several different dimensions- credibility, transferability, confirmability, dependability, and authenticity


Achieved when research methods inspire confidence that the results are truthful and accurate


The use of multiple sources or referents to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truth
refers to the application and combination of several research methods in the study of the same phenomenon
Combining multiple observers, theories, methods, and em


A distortion or influence that results in an error in inference
- Systematic- when the bias consistent or uniform
- Bias reduction- randomness (chance), binding (masking)

random selection

No systematic biases, all participants are in an initial pool have an equal chance of being selected


Also called masking
Used in some quantitative studies to prevent biases stemming from people's awareness
Involves concealing information from participants, data collectors, or care providers to enhance objectivity
Ex: getting a placebo drug

What is generalizability and transferability and what role does it play in research critique?

-The extent to which findings can be applied to other group settings

What was the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and why was it a violation of ethical principles?

Medical treatment was withheld deliberately to study the course of the untreated disease

What are the two main codes of ethics that are recognized world-wide?

Beneficence ( & respect for human dignity)

Discuss the Belmont Report. What is this and what role does it play in guiding ethical research?

Belmont report provided a model for many guidelines adopted by disciplinary organizations in the US
Served as the basis for regulations affecting research sponsored by the US government, including studies supported by the national Institute of Nursing Res


Imposes a duty on researchers to minimize harm and maximize benefits


Right to fair treatment and privacy

When considering a risk/benefit assessment, what is considered minimal risk?

risk is expected to be no greater than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during routine procedures

What is informed consent? How do we ensure free choice in informed consent?

Informed consent means participants have adequate information about the study, comprehend the information and have the power of free choice, enabling them to consent to or decline participation voluntarily
Informed consent is documented by having particip

What categories of participants are considered vulnerable research groups?

Mentally or emotionally disabled
Severely ill or physically disabled
Terminally ill
Institutionalized people
Pregnant women

Define Institutional Review Board. What is the purpose of the IRB?

Responsible for conducting an external review to examine the ethical dimensions of a study
-Decreased the chance of ethical violations due to bias of the researcher
-IRB can approve a study, suggest modifications, or disapprove of a study

research problem

Is an enigmatic or troubling condition.
The purpose of research is to "solve: the problem- or to contribute to its solution- by gathering relevant data
EX: nausea and vomiting are common side effects among patients on chemotherapy, and interventions to da

problem statement

Articulates the problem and an argument that explains the need for a study
Six components
Problem identification
Knowledge gaps
Proposed solution

statement of purpose

Also known as a purpose statement
An overall goal
Example: The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of patient controlled versus nurse administrated antiemetic therapy for controlling nausea and vomiting in patients on chemotherapy

research question

Specific queries researchers want to answer

What are sources of research problems?

Researchers interest
*Clinical experiences (MOST COMMON)
Reading in nursing literature

How does the statement of purpose differ between a quantitative and a qualitative study?

Identifies the key study variables and their possible relationships as well as the population interest
Establishes the direction of study
Indicated the nature of the inquiry, the key concept or phenomenon, and the group, communi

research hypothesis

Statements of expected relationships between variables (indicate the actual expectations)

null hypothesis

State that there is no relationship between the variables

How are hypothesis tested?

statistical analysis; We do not PROVE or DISPROVE a hypothesis; we SUPPORT or REJECT the hypothesis based on the statistical probability

primary sources

- descriptions of studies written by the researcher
- use for literature review

secondary sources

- descriptions of studies written by someone else
- ex: literature review

What is the first step in a literature review?

Starts with a question and then gather, analyze, and interpret data

When developing a search strategy, what is the ancestry approach?

Foot note chasing
In which citations from relevant studies are used to track down earlier research on which studies are based on the ''ancestors''

What is the CINAHL database and what type of journals does it contain information from?

Electronic database for nurses
References hundreds of nursing and allied health journals, books, and dissertations
Provides information for locating references and abstracts for most citations
Basic and advanced searches

What is a theory and what does a theory consist of?

A theory deals with two or more specific concepts
Theories make a set of statements discussing a topic within a discipline
EX: how our definition of caring in nursing is used or perceived differently than it is within another discipline such as education

What is a middle-range theory?

Middle range theory:
A theory that focuses on a limited piece of reality or human experience, involving a selected number of concepts ( e.g., a theory of stress)
Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations
Leininger's cultural diversity and universality th

What is a theoretical framework and what is its purpose?

Theory based studies
Theories are built inductively from observations, and research is an excellent source for those observations. Theory must be tested by subjecting deductions from it (hypothesis) to systematic inquiry. Research plays a dual and continu

What is a conceptual framework and what is its purpose?

A set of concepts and statements that integrate the concepts into a meaningful configuration
A study that has its roots in conceptual model
Often interchanges with conceptual framework, conceptual model, and theoretical framework

What are the advantages of a Mixed Methods design?

Complementarity of quantitative and qualitative data and the practicality of using methods that best address a question
Many research applications, including development and testing of instruments, theories, and interventions

concurrent data collection

Qualitative and quantitative data are collected at the same time

sequential data collection

Qualitative and quantitative data are collected in phases

What are three specific mixed methods designs and how/when is the qualitative and quantitative data collected in each?

-Simultaneous collection
-Qualitative and quantitative are given equal priority
-To obtain distinct but complementary data about a phenomenon
-Limits of one approach are offset by strengths of the other
-Sequential data collection