# Final

In one study, students read a fictitious job application. The applications are identical except that half have a female name ("Joan") and half have a male name. ("John"). The students rate the likelihood of the applicant succeeding at the job. What is the

The students' ratings of the applicants' success.

Pam records responses on a questionnaire as either "agree" or "disagree." This represents a(n) ______ scale of measurement.

Ordinal

What is the independent variable in the following statement? "If rats are reinforced with five food pellets for each correct response, then they will make more correct responses than rats that are reinforced with zero food pellets.

number of food pellets (five or zero)

A type I error refers to

accepting the experimental hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true

Andy conducts a study to improve reading scores in elementary schools. He obtains a sample of second-graders whose reading level was very much below average. He enrolls these students in a reading program and then measures their reading level six months l

?Statistical regression?

Features of the experiment that inadvertently lead participants to respond in a particular manner are known as

Demand characteristics

Tracy hopes that the results of her experiment are applicable to college students in general, not just the 100 students in her study. Tracy is concerned about

External validity

Larey decided to restrict her study on body dissatisfaction to only women because men and women vary greatly on this variable. Larey used the control technique of

Elimination

Why are extraneous variables problematic?

The researchers does not know if the results are do to the IV or to the extraneous variables

When the effects of amount or type of previous training or learning are manipulated, the researcher is using a(n) _______ IV

?experience?

Tammy conducted a study in which participants rank-ordered their favorite free-time activities. Tammy used a(n) ______ scale of measurement.

Ordinal

Depressed individuals who receive therapy will be less depressed than those in the control group who do not receive therapy." This hypothesis is an example of

directional research hypothesis

Bonnie conducts an experiment to examine the effects of media on college women's body image. She gives a sample of women a body image questionnaire, then a week later exposes them to magazine photos of very thin models. Then a week later she administers a

History

A variable has

two or more values

In one study, half of the rats are given one food pellet each time they correctly run a maze, and the other half of the rats are given two food pellets each time they correctly run a maze. The researchers record the average amount of time it takes the rat

Independent

Karen categorizes people in her sample as either male or female, which represents which scale of measurement

Nominal

Individuals who undergo therapy will differ in their levels of depression from those who do not undergo therapy." This hypothesis is an example of a

Nondirectional research hypothesis

Angela conducts a study demonstrating that active learning strategies in a research methods course produce greater understanding of the material than passive learning strategies. She hopes that her results will apply to other research methods courses outs

environmental generalization

Jarnell has discovered in her literature review that people often learn by imitation and observation (termed social learning). For example, when children see an adult behave violently toward a doll, they often imitate this violent behavior. Jarnell decide

Children who view an adult playing with a snake will be more likely to later pet a snake than children who view nothing at all.

A histogram can be used for _______ categories.

Quantitative

Nora would like to conduct an experiment to determine whether behavior modification techniques can help children eliminate bedwetting. She obtains a sample of children who wet the bed and randomly assigns half to the behavior modification therapy and half

Not enough information to determine.

What does a ".05 level of significance" mean?

A result is considered significant if it would occur five (or fewer) times out of 100 when the null hypothesis is true.

Consider the following scores: 1,1,2,2,3,3,3. What is the median?

2

______ is a statistical measure that conveys information about the magnitude of the effect produced by the IV

Effect size

Which of the following control techniques is most applicable to studies in which the participants are in all of the conditions of the experiment?

Counterbalancing

Derek conducts a study in which half of the participants read a job application from a male candidate and the other half read the same job application from a female candidate. He wants to make sure that each participant has a equal chance of reading the m

Randomization

When researchers manipulate some aspect of the environment, they are using a(n) ______ IV

Stimulus

Experimenter expectancies refer to expectations that

The experimenter has about the participants

Stanley conducts a study in which he assesses teasing in a sample of first-graders during the first week of school and again three months later. Because the study is longitudinal, Stanley has to worry about which of the following threats to internal valid

Maturation

Janie creates a new scale to measure self-esteem, but it turns out that it really measures extraversion. Janie's scale has low

Validity

Consider the following ratio-level scores: 1, 2, 3, 4, 24. What is the best choice for central tendency?

Median

Sharon hopes that the results of her study generalize beyond the participants in her study. Sharon is concerned about _____ generalization

Population

Joanna, a budding undergraduate researcher, is interested in studying whether people see bright lights after they die. Why is this a poor research idea?

This project is not testable

Joy is conducting her experiment in the same room, with the same temperature, and the same lighting. Joy is using the control technique of

Constancy

A researcher conducts a study on the effectiveness of a new drug to alleviate anxiety. Participants are given either the drug or a sugar pill, and they don't know which they are receiving. Furthermore, the experiment dispensing the pills does not know whi

Double-blind

Jerry is concerned about whether his IV is the only possible explanation for the results of his experiment. Jerry is concerned about

Internal validity

_____ errors are under the direct control of the experimenter, and _____ errors are not under the direct control of the experimenter

Type 1; Type 2

McKibban and Nelson (2001) assessed satisfaction with life in college students by using their scores on the Satisfaction with Life scale. What kind of DV is this?

Degree or amount

Why is it important to understand scales of measurement?

The scale of measurement for the DV determines the kind of statistical test that can be conducted.

Shayla conducts a study in which a confederate dresses up either in nice clothes or shabby clothes. The confederate goes to the mall and asks people for directions. Shayla hypothesizes that more people will help the confederate when he is nicely dressed r

The same student is used as the confederate (sometimes dressed in nice clothes and sometimes dressed in shabby clothes)

Which of the following is a good operational definition of anxiety?

Score on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale

Tara compared first-graders and second-graders in number of words they remembered correctly. What kind of DV is this?

correctness

What is the DV in the following statement: "If people are put in groups, then they will be less likely to help a strange than when they are by themselves.

Likelihood to help a stranger

A research method involving independent and dependent variables is referred to as a(n)

experiment

Directional hypotheses are associated with _____ tests and nondirectional hypotheses are associated with _______ tests.

One-tailed; two-tailed

In a factorial design, researchers use

Two or more independent variables

Suppose you were interested in conducting an experiment with two IVs. Why should you use a factorial design instead of two separate experiments?

The factorial design allows you to test for interactions.

A significant interaction means that

The effects of one IV depend on the particular level of another IV.

Lola conducts a study to examine aggression. She has both men and women come to a laboratory room that is either 70 degrees or 90 degrees. Suppose she finds that overall, men were more aggressive than women. This finding illustrates (a)

Main effect of sex of participant

A factorial design in which both IV's involve random assignment is referred to as a ______ factorial design

Between-subjects

A factorial design in which both IV's involve repeated measures is referred to as a(n) ______ design.

Completely within-groups

Roger conducts an experiment in which some participants receive therapy and others do not. The people who receive therapy are referred to as the _______ group, and the people who do not receive therapy are referred to as the _____ group.

experimental; control

Jamonn conducts a study in which one group of participants in randomly assigned to be in a 70-degree room, and another group of participants is randomly assigned to be in a 90-degree room. Jason will make a

between-subjects comparison

Juana conducts a study with a boy who has been inattentive during class. Juan first measures the number of times per class period the boy looks around the classroom without paying attention to the teacher. Then, Juana administers a treatment whereby the b

A-B-A-B design

Independent variables can

Contrast the presence versus the absence of some variables
Contrast "high" versus "low" amounts of some variable
be measured rather than manipulated in an ex post facto design
(ALL OF THE ABOVE)

Samantha had one group of participants watch a violent hockey game and had the other group watch a nonviolent hockey game. She pretested participants on their levels of trait aggressiveness to make sure there were equal numbers of such people in both grou

between-subjects; independent

Chris would like to conduct a study on the effectiveness of a new substance-abuse treatment program. He has a sample of participants go through the program and he uses as a comparison group people who did not volunteer for the program but were eligible. C

?nonequivalent group?

Miguel conducts a study in which he compares the effectiveness of behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, humanistic therapy, and psychodynamic therapy to treat phobias. In this study, the IV is the ____ and it has ____ level(s)

Type of therapy; four

Latitia conducted an experiment in which all the men watched an aggressive television program, and all the women watched a non-aggressive television program. Her results showed that people who watched the aggressive program were later more aggressive than

She has confounded gender and type of television program

A statistical test used to analyze data from an experiment with one IV that has three or more groups is known as a

one-way ANOVA

Rich has conducted a study in which he compares the reading skills of six-year-olds, seven-year-olds, and eight-year-olds. What kind of statistical test should Rich use?

One-way ANOVA

An experiment in which both the experimenter and the participants are unaware of which treatment the participants are receiving is known as a ______ experiment.

double-blind

Which of the following is an impossible factorial design?

1 x 3

In a two-variable experiment

Any combination of main effects and interactions is possible

A typical experiment differs from a single-case experiment in which of the following ways?

A typical experiment uses multiple participants and a single-case experiment uses on participant