The primary chemical digestion in the large intestine results from the action of
The appendix is attached to the
The folds of the gastric mucosa are called
The major stimulus for secretion of secretin is
entry of acid chyme into the small intestine
Gallstones are usually made of crystallized
Bicarbonate ions diffuse into blood capillaries of the stomach after a meal because
they are being exchanged for chloride ions that enter the stomach lumen ( chloride shift)
Intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells of the stomach is required for
absorption of vitamin B12
Peristalsis occurs during
the pharyngeal stage of deglutition and the esophageal stage
The type of chemical reaction catalyzed by the digestive enzymes in the digestive juices of the alimentary canal is
The small intestine is attached to the posterior abdominal wall by a fold of the peritoneum called the
The major digestive enzyme in salvia is
Which of the following is an example of mechanical digestion?
The pyloric sphincter is located at the junction of the _____ and the _______.
stomach , duodenum
The major chemical digestion that occurs in the adult stomach is
hydrolysis of proteins by pepsin
Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system will
decrease production of digestive juices
Folds in the mucosa of the small intestine that increase the surface area for diffusion are called
The common bile duct is formed by the union of the
common hepatic and cystic ducts
Most absorption of nutrients occurs in the
The function of bile is to
specific disaccharides are hydrolyzed by enzymes found in
The hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin would result in the production of
Which of the following would be considered an accessory organ of the digestive system?
List the tubing in correct order of food movement
oropharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus, stomach, pyloric valve
Correct order of food movement in colon
ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon
List the correct order of food movement in small intestine
pyloric valve, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve
During swallowing the nasal cavity is closed off by the soft palate and the
The regular contractions of the muscular that push food through the entire gastrointestinal tract are known as
What describes the location of the esophagus best
posterior to the trachea, anterior to the vertebral cool,m from laryngopharynx to stomach
The greenish color of the bile is the result of the presence of breakdown products of
The large intestine absorbs mostly
Partially digested food is usually passed from the stomach to the small intestine about how long after consumption?
The functions of the gallbladder include
storage and concentration of bile
The liver produces urea to
detoxify ammonia produced via deamination of protiens
The normal color of feces is due primarily to the
breakdown products of hemoglobin
The muscularis of most organs of the gastrointestinal tract consists of two layers of smooth muscle except the
stomach, it has three layers.
What has the lowest pH
cephalic stage of gastric digestion
sight, smell , thought or taste of food trigger parasympathatic impulses
The process of ______ results in the mechanical mixing of food with salvia and shaping of food into a bolus.
chief cells of stomach
secretes maltase, lactase, sucrase
intestinal glands of small intestine
acini of pancreas
cells of stomach
secretes alkaline mucus
duodenal glands of small intestine
secretes insulin and glucagon
secretes hydrogen ions and chloride ions
parietal cells of stomach
The stomach is considered an accessory digestive organ
false, it is an alimentary organ of the digestive system
The substrate for salivary amylase is starch
Cuspids are teeth specialized for grinding food
false, the molars specialize in grinding
Peristalsis begins in the esophagus
Bicarbonate ions are secreted into the lumen of the stomach along with the hydrogen ions to buffer them
false, the hydrogen bonds bind with chloride to create the acidic environment of the stomach. The bicarbonate goes into the blood.
Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mix in the liver sinusoids
CCK stimulates ejection of bile from the gallbladder
The jejunum is the longest region of the small intestine
false, the ileum is longer
The gastrocolic reflex triggers mass peristalsis
The brush border of the small intestine is formed by the microvilli of the epithelial cells
The opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes is called the
Chief cells of the stomach produce _____ and _____
pepsinogen , gastric lipase and chymosin
Parietal cells of the stomach secrete ______ and ________
intrinsic factor, HCL
Mixing waves of the stomach covert solid food into a liquid called
During the gastric phase of the gastric digestion, acetylcholine from parasympathetic neurons stimulates secretion of the hormone ____.
The principle triglyceride digesting enzyme in adults is
Bile is secreted by hepatocytes into vessels called
Gastric emptying is the slowest after a meal rich in
The principle bile pigment is _____.
All of the microvilli of the epithelial cells of the small intestine collectively form a fuzzy line called the
Aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer's patches) are located in the mucosa of the ______ of the small intestine.
Chyme and digestive juices are mixed by localized contractions of the muscularis of the small intestine called ____________.
The end products of the hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by sucrase are ____ and _______.
About 90 percent of all absorption of nutrients occurs in the ______ , the other 10 percent occurs in the ____ and ________.
small intestine, stomach, large intestine
Thickened portions of the longitudinal muscles of the large intestine are called _______ that gather the colon into pouches called ______.
teniae coli , haustra
Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.
Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed.
Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule
Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.
Food is contained in the gastrointestinal tract from the time of ingestion until it is completely digested and the waste prepared for elimination.
As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrients are more readily available to the body.
Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and worn out cells.
Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion and is secreted by the parietal cells.
False, pepsinogen is secreted by the chief cells
The main chemical activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.
Chemical digestion of lipids is initiated in the mouth.
False, starch digestion beings in the mouth
The function of the enzyme salivary amylase is to begin digesting proteins.
False, amylase digests starch
The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile.
The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine function.
Mumps is an inflammation of the parotid glands caused by myxovirus.
Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach.
The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food.
false, rises to close
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to
collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage.
The sheet of peritoneal membrane that holds the small intestines in place is called
The four basic layers of the lumen
mucosa , submucosa, muscularis externa , serosa
The plicae circulares and intestinal villi are found in which of the four layers of the alimentary tube wall?
20 teeth, and by 2 years of age most children have all 20
32 teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge
cleanses the mouth, moistens the food and aids in compacting of bolus, dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted
What increases the surface area of the mucosal lining?
plicae circulares and intestinal villi
Salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells
serous cells and mucous cells
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
Chyme is created in the
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, seotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrine that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which cells yes synthesize and secrete these products.
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of
proteins and peptide fragments
Pepsinogen, an inactive form of the digestive enzyme is secreted by the
chief cells of the stomach
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively , unite to form the
Short chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are spilt by a specific enzyme for preparation for absorption. Which enzyme is responsible?
Parietal cells of the stomach produce
Hepatocytes do not
produce digestive enzymes
The _____ contains lobules with macrophage-lined sinusoids that lead to a central venous canal.
The terminal portion of the small intestine is the
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
Pancreatic amylase does NOT get into the small intestine via the
The function of the goblet cells is to
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effect of powerful enzymes and acid
A fluid secreted into the duodenum during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents and
Which of the following enzymes is specific for protiens
What is not true of the large intestine
its longer than the small intestine ( It is shorter)
Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves all of the following except
secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream and whole milk. What gland is active in helping to digest this food?
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause what to occur?
release of bile from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum
The longest portion of the small intestine is the
_________ is the principal enzyme for breaking down complex carbohydrates.
_____ cells of the stomach secrete HCl.
The chief bile pigment is
____ is another word for vomiting.
The portal triad contains a branch of the _____ , a branch of the ______, and a _______.
hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, bile duct
Hepatic macrophages called ____ cells are found in the liver sinusoids and they remove debris from the blood as it flows past.
The ______ ligament anchors a tooth in the alveolus of the jaw.
The _____ phase of gastric secretions occurs before food enters the stomach.
The found ligament is a remnant of the fetal __________.
What is heartburn and what causes it?
The acidic gastric juices are regurgitated into the esophagus. This may happen when someone has eaten or drunk to much. It can be caused by extreme obesity or pregnancy. It is sometimes due to obstructions or faults in the esophagus.
Define constipation and diarrhea and note possible causes of each.
Watery stools are called diarrhea. Constipation is a condition in which to much water has been absorbed and the stool becomes difficult to pass. Any condition such as irritation of the colon by bacteria that rushes food residue through the large intestine
What is the purpose of stomach acid? How does the stomach protect itself from digestion?
Activates lipase, helps digest. Mucus
What causes a peptic ulcer?
Peptic ulcers are erosions of the stomach wall. They are most commonly caused by the H. pylori bacterium.
Trace a drop of bile from production by the hepatocyte until it leaves the body.
bile canaliculi, bile ductus, right and left hepatic ducts, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, bile duct, duct of pancreas, hepatopancreatic ampulla, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
Assume you have been chewing a piece of bread for 5 or 6 minutes. Why would the bread begin to taste sweet?
amylase working on starch, breaking down into maltose which is sweet
________ is a hormone released from the duodenum in response to acidic chyme. It stimulates the pancreas to secrete more ________ to raise/lower the pH in the duodenum.
pancreatic protease, HCO3
List the components of pancreatic juice
water, enzymes, electrolytes, (bicarbonate ions)
pepsin - polypeptides
ribonuclease, deoxyrib. - pentase, sugars, N bases, phosphate ions
fats and triglycerides
lipase- free fatty acids , monoglycerides
Where is most of the water that enters the small intestine absorbed?
What causes lactose intolerance?
not producing enough lactase