Child & Adolescent Health Test 2

Name some influences on child and adolescent health.

Parents, families, media, schools, health care providers, employers, community agencies, government agencies, religious organizations

Forces that push a child towards/away from a particular course of action

Social pressure

Agreeing with a group because they have provided you information that you really believe shows them to be right

Informational Influence

Agreeing with the group, not because you think they are right, but because you want to be accepted by the group and not cause discord within the group

Normative influence

If a child's friends smoke or drink, what will this do to the child's likelihood of smoking/drinking?


What happens to a child if family and friends have positive attitudes towards the child drinking or smoking?

Child will be more likely to smoke, as they see it as acceptable by their parents or peers

How should families be a model to encourage a child not to drink or smoke?

Practice what is acceptable, allow reasoning and decision making, know rules and consequences- convey this to child

What might be some signs of deviant behavior of a child that families can look for?

Absenteeism, low grades, withdrawal from family and family activities, unexplained injuries/accidents, substantial behavior change. Parents should know what their child is doing in and out of school.

What are some resources to positively influence health behaviors among children and adolescents?

Parks, community organizations, teen pregnancy and eating disorder clinics, smoking and drinking cessation programs

What are some risks associated with increased viewing time of TV/video gaming?

Exposure to violence, overweight, exposure to risky behaviors (smoking and drinking),reinforcement of gender roles and racial stereotypes

What are the risks associated with overexposure to video gaming, according to the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry?

Poor social skills, time away from family/schoolwork/hobbies, lower grades, reading less, exercising less, overweight, aggressive thoughts and behaviors

What are some benefits of social media?

Communication and technical skills, creativity, discover opportunities to engage in the community by volunteering, shape sense of identity, access to health information

What are concerns about social media?

Peer pressure, cyberbullying, access to non age-appropriate websites, content can encourage risky behaviors, "facebook depression

What does the AAP guidelines for pediatricians say about online screen time?

Parents should talk to their kids about online issues, parents should be more educated about the technologies their children are using, limitation of online-use, discuss importance of parents supervising online activities with active participation and com

How can parents help positively influence a child?

Value and love them as a person, spend time with child, be aware of current behaviors and trends, listen, help/work with the child, find alternate behaviors and activities for the child.

Any chemical that produces a therapeutic/non-therapeutic effect in the body


Broad class of substances, including drugs, that may or may not produce noticeable effects in the body


What does NHTSA stand for?

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

What does the NHTSA say increases the risk of alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents?

Nonoccupant has BAC of 0.01 gram/dL

What is the current statistic (rough) regarding alcohol-related fatalities?

Decreased, possibly due to increased drinking age of 21.

Regular/frequent use of an illegal or harmful substance that causes problems in some aspect of a teen's life

Teen substance abuse

What are some reasons that adolescents may try drugs/alcohol?

Experimentation, fun, social acceptance, result of using another substance, loss of motivation, problems in the family, legal issues, etc.

What teens are most at risk for substance abuse?

Family history of alcoholism, sensation-seeking personality, impulsive/risk taker, mental illness, stress, easy access, low self esteem, trying to fit in

What is the average age for boys and girls that they first try alcohol?

Boys- 11 Girls-13

What physiological effects does alcohol have on teens?

Liver damage, irregular heart beat/stoppage, hypothermia, coma, seizure, damage to immature organs, choke on vomit, slow breathing/stop breathing= alcohol poisoning

What trend did the Monitoring the Future survey show regarding alcohol use among 8th graders?

Declining overall

What does NIDA stand for?

National Institute on Drug Abuse

What does AWOL stand for?

Alcohol Without Liquid (alcohol vaporizers)

What is the current trend in tobacco use among youth?

Declined, but the numbers are still too high

Why are cigarettes more unhealthy today?

More additives

Risks of smoking during childhood/adolescence?

Permanent genetic damage, increased risk of lung cancer, CV irregularities, colon cancer, DNA alterations(especially in those who begin smoking at a young age)

Why are cigars damaging even though they are not inhaled?

Toxins/carcinogens, doubles risk of cancers/circulatory problems, no filters, higher levels of nicotine and other toxins

What does DARE stand for?

Drug Abuse Resistance Education

What is DARE?

Drug abuse education that incorporates law enforcement, and teaches how to resist subtle pressure that influence them to experiment with alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other drugs

What did the Columbia U. study recommend for curbing teen drinking?

Parents should take a "hands on" role in their kids' lives, parents held legally responsible for their children's alcohol use, better enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol ads should be banned on TV (ex-superbowl party ads)

What race, according to the CDC facts on Youth & Tobacco Use, report higher % of cigarette use?


Drugs that speed up the activity of the brain and nervous system


Depressant with mild hallucinogenic properties


Stimulant that increases speed of CNS activity


Both a stimulant and hallucinogen


Act upon the CNS to cause radical changes in sensory perception


Depressant, analgesic made from a sticky resin secreted by the opium poppy


Vaporize in air and cause intoxication when inhaled, depressants


What drug is most popular with ages 12+?

Marijuana, followed by Rx meds and pain relievers

What age group is most likely to use inhalants?

8th graders

What are some signs of drug abuse, according to NIDA?

Chemical odors on breath/clothing, paint stains on face, hands, clothes, hidden spray paints/solvents/rags soaked, drunk appearance, slurred speech, nausea or loss of appetite, inattentiveness, lack of coordination, irritability, depression

More that 5 children die of child abuse in the home in the USA each ____.


How many people report child abuse when faced with an actual situation?


What is the single, leading cause of death for children ages 4-younger?

Child abuse and neglect

On average,child abuse is reported somewhere in the United States every _____.

10 seconds

Strangers pose the greatest risk of sexual abuse to children (t/f).

False- usually someone the child knows/is close to

T/F- Child molesters get their sexual gratification only from children


What is the average age that child molesters first attack a child?

In their teens

What are the three major components to child abuse?

Child + caregiver +stress= abuse

Effects of media violence of children?

Desensitization, risk of child becoming violent adult, children mimic violence seen on TV, children begin to see the world as dangerous, hindering curiosity and exploration

What types of violence do children experience?

Physical fighting, community violence, bullying, domestic violence

Where do school shooting generally occur?

Middle-upper class neighborhoods

Trends in the rate of arrests for violent crimes?

Going down lately

Why is exposure to domestic violence damaging to children?

2x risk of males abusing their wives later in life, juvenile delinquency, poor emotional health, poor adult health outcomes

What type of violence are young children most likely to experience?

Violence in the home

What type of violence are older children likely to experience?

Media violence, community violence

What type of violence are teenagers likely to experience?

Homicide, suicide, dating violence (females- sexual assault)

What race is typically exposed to more violence?


What is the most common cause of death or children in all industrialized countries?

Unintentional injuries

What are some steps that have been made to prevent unintentional injuries?

Flammable fabrics act- Fire resistant sleepwear, Poison Packaging Prevention Act- childproof bottles, water heaters set to certain temperature to avoid tap water burns, bicycle helmets, car seats, increased drinking age, gun safes.

What are the current NIDA InfoFacts trends regarding drug use?

Decreased use of alcohol, Rx, and pain relievers, no increase in marijuana use, decreasing use of inhalants and synthetic drugs, general decline in illicit drugs. However,e-cigarette usage is on the rise. In addition, perceived harm decreased in regards t

What race/sex tends to abuse OTC's more?

White males

Who is most likely to be a shooting offender?

Hurt children

What four factors do the increase in fear of violence stem from, according to the Youth and Violence reading?

Increase in mass murder/suicides/shootings, increased lethality of firearms and ammunition, more random violence, fewer safe places

What are some of the racial disparities in youth violence, according to the Youth and Violence reading?

Black males 4x more likely to be killed than whites, blacks are overrepresented in all stages of juvenile justice system

What are the top two causes of youth violence?

Violence in the home, violence at school

What is the trend regarding the US homicide rate?

Steadily decreasing

What are the 6 core elements of the public health model, according to the Youth and Violence reading?

Community based methods to identify sources of the problem, epidemiological data, tracking trends to study prevalence and incidence, community based interventions, evaluation and monitoring of interventions to establish and improve their effectiveness, pu

According to the Youth and Violence article, what are the influences in youth violence?

Behavioral (temperament), biological (can affect brain chemistry), economic, societal, familial, and environmental

What are the key risk factors for youth violence stated in the Youth and Violence article?

Alcohol/other drug use, child maltreatment, gangs, media violence, violence among intimates and peers

According to the "Latino Youth Drinking Article", which race and gender drank more?

Dominicans, boys

According to the "Latino Youth Drinking Article", what influenced students' likelihood of drinking?

Having friends who drink, parents who encourage/are indifferent to drinking, friends with positive attitudes towards drinking