ATI comprehensive


females 4.2-5.4 millionmales 4.7-6.1 million

decrease RBC




elevated WBC


decreased WBC



females 60-160 mcgmales 80-180

elevated iron

hemochromatosis, iron excessliver disorder, magaloblastic anemia

decreased iron

anemia or hemorrhage



increased platelets

malignancy or polycythemia vera

decreased platelets

autoimmune diseasebone marrow suppression or enlarged spleen


females 12-16males 14-18

decrease Hgb and Hct



females 37%-47%males 42-52%

anemia in childrenS & SX:

pallor, brittle spoon shaped nailsirritability, muscle weaknesssystolic heart murmur, enlarged heart, HF

iron supplements

give 1 hr before or 2 hr after antacid to prevent malabsorptN/D and constipation common at start of therapyuse straw for liquid iron to prevent staining of teeth


1.5-2X control range of 30-40 secondstest clotting factors and monitor heparin therapy

increased aPTT

hemophiliadisseminated intravascular coagulation DICliver disease


11-12.5 seconds, 85-100%

increased PT time

evidence of deficiency or clotting

decreaed PT time

evidence of vit K excess= bleed out

acute hemolytic blood transfusion reactions

**low back pain, TACHYcardia, HYPOtension

febrile reactions

30 min-6 hr after transfusion-chills, fever, flushing, headacheuse WBC filter, administer antipyretics

mild allergic reactions

during or up to 24hr after transfusion- itching, urticarial, flushingadminister benadryl

anaphylactic shock

wheezing, dyspnea, cyanosis, hypotensionmaintain airway, admin O2, IV fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids and vasopressor

fluid overload

HYPERtension, jugular vein distention, peripheral edemaorthopnea, crackles at base of lungssudden anxiety

sepsis and septic shock


if disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

admin heparin in early stage-blood products and clotting factors in late stage


eating things like soil, chalk, for at least 1 month

parenteral iron

given Z track

erythropoietin - epoetin alfa (epogen, Procrit)

used to increased production of RBCmonitor increase in BP, Hgb, Hct

folic acid

turn urine dark yellownecessary for new RBC

hypovolemia causes

peritonitis, ascites, burns , NPO

causes of dehydration

hyperventilationDKA tube feeding without sufficient water intake

subjective and objective HYPOvolemia

Hyperthermia, Tachycardia, HYPOtensiondecreased central venous pressurehypoxiathirst, dizziness, N/V, -poor skin turgor, tentin

lab test hypovolemia

increased: HCT, specific gravity, NA, protein, BUN, glucose

Hypervolemia causes

HF, cirrhosis, increased gluccorticosteroidshypertonic fluids

S & SX HYPERvolemia

bounding pulse, increased CVP, HYPERtension, confusion, muscle weakness, ascites, diminished breath sounds, distended neck veins

lab test HYPERvolemia

Decreased: HCT, BUN, electrorespiratory alkalosis PaCO2 less than 35, increased PH

notify doctor if

weight gain 1-2 lb/24 or 3 lb in a wk

foods high in potassium

avocados, broccoili, dairy products, dried fruit, cantaloupe, bananas


positive chvosteks ( facial twitching)positive trousseau (hand/finger spasm with blood pressure cuff inflation

excess caffeine causes excretion

calcium in urine

secondary osteoporosis results from

hyperparathyroidism, long term corticosteroid long term anticonvulsant (Dilantin)manifestations: kyphosis

stages of grief

1. denial 4. depression 2. anger 5. acceptance 3. bargaining


relaxation of bronchioles causing bronchodilator oral used to control asthma or COPDtherapeutic range 5-15avoid in HTN, liver and kidney dysfunction

theophylline interactions


glucocorticoids: beclomethasone- inhalation prednisone- PO

prevent inflammation, suppress airway mucus production

leukotriene (monelukast)

suppressing inflammation, bronchoconstriction's, airway edema, mucus production


makes the heart beat stronger and regular rhythmtherapeutic 0.5-2.0

S & SX of dig tox

fatigue, weakness, vision changes, GI effectsinfuse over 5 min


difficulty controlling bleedingX linked recessive disorderjoint pain and stiffness, impaired mobility, easy bruising slurred speech

lab test indication of hemophilia

prolonged aPTTavoid unnecessary needle sticks, apply pressure for 5 mins after needle sticksmonitor for occult blood


synthetic form of vasopressin increases plasma factor VIIInot for hemophilia B

acute hemolytic blood transfusion reactions

**low back pain, TACHYcardia, HYPOtension, hemoglobinuria,


10-15 mm Hg


osmotic diuretic treat cerebral edema

phenytoin (Dilantin)

prophylactically to prevent or treat seizures


removal of nonviable brain tissue that allows for expansion or removal of epidural or subdural hematomas

KUB (kidneys, urter, bladder

determines size shape and position of structures


use a scope to visualize the bladder and urthera

reflex incontinence

Reflex - The involuntary loss of a moderate amount of urine usually without warning due tohyperreflexia of the detrusor muscle, usually from altered spinal cord activity.

treatment for urinary infections

gentamycin and Keflex take with food may change urine odor and report loose stools

TCA (nortriptyline (pamelor)

helps relieve urinary incontinence -cause dizzinessmonitor BP, don't take with MAOI

phenazopyridine (pyridium)

treats urinary spasms, analgesicwont treat infection only bladder discomfortliver and renal contraindication take with food and change urine organge

interventions for reflex incontinence

Bladder compression techniques (Credé, Valsalva, double-voiding, splinting) to help clientsmanage.


removal of testes


impaired outflow, fam Hx, -urine hesitancy and retention, plainless hematuria


diagnosis and R/o BPH

ways to reducuse prostatic fluids

frequent ejaculation


using a scope inserted though urethra and trims away excess prostatic tissue, enlarging passage through prostate


irrigation to keep clots from forming, if bright red blood or clots increase rate

intervention for CBI obstruction

1. turn off CBI2. irrigate with 50 mL of irrigant sol with lg piston syringe3. contact doc if cant dislodge clot

expectations of D/c of CBI

red in color, expect 150-200 output every 3-4 hrscontact doc if cant void

discharge instructions after TURP

avoid sex 2-6 wks, 12+ glasses of water of day, avoid caffeine, expect pink urine

abnormal PSA

less than 4

DRE signs of prostate CA

hard palpable irregular

fluoxetine (prozac

monitor tremors, AE: headache, urinary freq, hypotension-agitation, confusion, anxiety, hallucination (Serotonin syndrome


milk products coat throat causing coughing; coughing should be avoidedadmin pain on a reg sched or 1st 24 hrs to prevent breakthrough pain

hypovolemic shock

cool clammy skin



anaphylactic reaction

wheezing, rah


involuntary movement


monitor HR

digoxin tox

nausea, muscle weakness, diarrhea


admin lasix


helps prevent osteroposis

estradiol SE

headaches and HTN


teaching: report chest pain, increases work load and O2 demand can result in angina


can cause dehydration and low grade fever

hemolytic blood reaction

**low back pain, tachycardia, hypotensiokn

structure audit

eval of avail resources

precess audit

examine how nursing care is provided

prospective audit

performance on a new

valporic acid

monitor LFT

chlorpromazine (haloperidol)

decrease hallucinations teach: sips fluids freq, minimize sun exposure


maintain hydration with liberal intakedoesn't affect glucose


stay with client, 2. place saline over organs, 3. put in supine 4. take vitals

overdose of valporic acid

pulmonary edema

amitriptyline (TCA)

anticholinergic effect, (dry mouth, constipation, take with or after foods, avoid tyramine, -turns urine blue green


restrict visitors, avoid fresh flowers


thrombolytic drug

cranial nerve VII

hearing impairment



verapamil effects if taken with grapefruit juice

constipation, hypotension, bradycardia, FVE


weight gain, hyperglycemia, ortho BP


initiate cardiac monitoring

foods high in mg

meat, nuts, whole grain cereal

gastric lavage

left side lying to prevent regurgitation of contents can use sterile water, tap or NS


reduces gastric acidtake preg test before starting treatment-avoid mg causes diarrhea


pyelonephritis- WBC

trachea care steps

1. suction (80-120)2. clean cannula3. rinse stoma site4. change ties

BRAT is contraindicated in


vacuum assited birth complication

cervical laceration

retained placenta

common in preterm births

endometrial infection common with

prolonged ROM

what is expected after delivery

elevated temp

late deceleration and variable decels

side lie position and DC oxytocin


muscle relaxant decrease contractions during preterm labor


opioid pain relief during labor


muscle relax, decrease contractions during labor


stimulates contractionsused for bleeding and boggy uterus

theophylline tox

anorexia**hypotension, tachycardia

adverse effect of theophylline



repeating what a person says


pt makes up works only they understand

clang assoc

uses words that sound alike

pap detects what

cervical cancer; not ovarian cancer


required for tissue repair

vitamin A

promotes wound healing


apply cold therapy, no narcotic analgesicavoic purines in gout ( organ meat and chicken, can have citrus fruit)

when is Braxton hicks expected by

28 wks

evidence of ICP

memory losslie at 30 degree angle

signs of bacterial meningitis

nuchal rigidity ( reduction of flexion in the neck)kernigs sign

kernigs sign

patient put knee at 90 degree angle if cant extend straight and pain its positive

peripheral arterial disease

lotion to prevent cracked feet claudication when walking and stops after rest


coarse dry hair, bradycardiaperiorbital edema (swelling around eyes)


tremors, wght loss, exothalamus,

sudden abdomen pain relief indication of

ruptured appendix and peritonitis

pneumothorax expect

subcutaneous emphysema, trach deviation,

pneumonia expect

acute confusion (delirium)

flail chest

paradoxic movement

core pulmonale

distended neck veins

sealed radiation implant

visitors maintain 6 ft from pt


increases urine specific gravity (1.003-1.030


decreased WBC

clonidine (HTN med)

s. E. constipation, dry mouth


fulfill commitment


do no harm


treat fairly

cardiac tamponade

pulse paradoxus, muffled sounds

tube feed for infants


newborn temp



metallic taste

tyramine foods

aged cheese (cheddar, blue cheese, swisscured meats (salami, sausages, pepperoni)sauerkraut, soy sauce, shrimp sauceyeast, fava beans,

flumazenil counteracts

benzodiazepine OD

acetyleysteine counteracts

acetaminophen OD

atropine counteracts

cholinesterase inhibitor OD

acute angle glacoma

sharp pain radiates through eye

physiological normal age changes

increase BP, decrease lung expansiondecrease CO