Comm Final

Interpersonal Communication*

occurring between at least two interdependent parties


Guidelines that help direct our behavior
-What we expect out of others
-Make behavior predictable


Fit into category of friend, employee, child
-These offer predictability

Expected Roles*

What you should do

Enacted Roles*

How you do act

IntErole Conflict*

When two roles you're occupying contradict like friend and paid tutor

IntrArole conflict*

One role with multiple conflicting responsibilities (if one person in a relationship wants it to be casual and another wants serious)

Attachment Theory*


3 aspects of Social Penetration Theory*

-Breadth: Broader range of topics
-Depth: Deeper topics, personal things
-Frequency: ofteness of disclosure

Uncertainty Reduction Theory*
Uncertainty Reduction:

Uncertainty: raises info-seeking, reduces intimacy, reduced by similarity
Uncertainty reduction: lowers jealousy, improves relational maintenence

Human attraction*

Overall notion of the force that makes you interested in another person: physical, sexual, social,relational, task oriented

5 Forces of attraction*


Knapps Stages of Coming together*

Relational development stage escalation: Positive*

Initiating -> experimenting -> intensifying -> integrating
-> bonding

Relational development stage escalation: Negative*

Differentiation -> Circumscribing -> Stagnating -> Avoiding -> Terminating

Content and relational message dimension*

Are their connotative meanings to what you're saying?

Confirming vs. Disconfirming messages*

reinforce vs. diminish

Supportive vs. defensive communication*

constructive or antagonistic

Relational Maintenance*

Show other person they are valued and cared about

Termination Strategies*

Negative Identity Management: Get other person to dump you.
De-escalation: Lets just be friends
Justification: Rationalize the end
Positive Tone: You deserve better

Modern Deception*

We sculpt the person we are/ how we are represented on social media


Learned Pre-Disposition to respond favorably/ unfavorably towards something

Physiological Consistency*

inconsistent has a bad connotation -> We seek consistency

Balance Theory*

Three cognitive elements may be balanced or imbalanced. Resolving Confliict

Cognitive Dissonance*

Perception of concept or idea
Type 1- Constant, beliefs match
Type 2- Dissonance, beliefs don't match- conflict- you must change either belief or behavior

Elaboration Likelihood model*


Return the favor

Foot in the Door Technique*

Ask for something small first, then it is more likely you'll get a yes if you ask for something larger


Small Commitment- Change terms


Trustworthy, expertise, goodwill


An expressed struggle between 2 incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving goals. Words must be exchanged and you must have conflicting goals or issues.


Within self


Other person interfering with your goal


Conflict between others in a group/team

Conflict Purposes*

Persuasion,regulating, catharsis, clarifying

Causes of Conflict*

Behavior, personality, or relationship roles

Stages of Conflict*

Latent, emergence, escalation, de-escalation, resolution, reconciliation

Kilmann Thomas Model*

Gottman's research on marriage conflict*


The cascade model of relational conflict*

Conflict cascades in a negative slope and if it goes too far the relationship will end

Small group communication*

Involves 5-7 people who share a common purpose, they have a sense of connection, and hold influence on one another

Four Phase Model*

Forming, storming, norming, performing


group comes together for a purpose


Different personalities emerge and conflict


Find a rhythm of working together


Begin accomplishing goal -> work at highest possible level


tendency for members to align when reaching a consensus which leads to issues because of too much faith that everyone agrees. Gives an illusion of invulnerability, rationalization.

Downward Communication Pattern*

Gives direction, from boss to employee

Upward Communication Pattern*

Employee to Boss feedback -> helps relieve frustration, enhances feeling of participation, allows boss to gauge effectiveness of downward communication

Horizontal Communication Pattern*

Interactions with co-workers


Usually negative, can create positive change. Leveling, sharpening, and assimilation can occur

4 Framework approach to Leadership*

-Structural: Focus on strategy, implement, experiment, adapt- Tyrant or Leader
-Human Resource: accessible, democratic, open, empowerment, support- Motivator or Pushover
-Political: Clear goal, persuasive, networking, power based-Passionate or manipulator