American Government Chapter 1-4


limited government and cautious about change pro-military, support gun control, support school prayer, sanctity on marriage


favoring government action and viewing change as progresspro-choice, support gay marriage, support gun control


decisions are made by the politicians and state owns the property

Social Democracy

capitalist economy and government supports equality and property is privately owned

Political System Types

authoritarian and non-authoritarian


state holds all the power and can take various forms-God (theocracy)-State (fascism)-Individual (monarchy)-Ruling Class (oligarchy)


anarchy (absence of laws and government) and democracy (rule by the people)

Elite Democracy

democracy where citizens are limited to choosing among competing leaders

Pluralist Democracy

democracy where citizen membership in groups is they key to political power

Participatory Democracy

democracy where citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of the lives

People as Subjects

state has all the power, citizens have obligations to the state, and people must follow orders

People as Citizens

have rights and can run for office


born in one of the fifty states/ American territory or through naturalization

5 Requirements for Naturalization

1. must be 18 or older2. be a permanent resident for 5 years3. be of good moral character4. be able to read, write, and speak basic English5. have basic knowledge of U.S history

Social Contract

people give up their rights in exchange for protection of certain rights from the government


organizations in which governmental power is exercised

Economic Systems

capitalism, socialism, and social democracy


laissez-faire and regulated


no government role and people do as they wish

Regulated Capitalism

allows the government to intervene and regulate the economy while still giving the people freedoms


central ideas, principles, or standards that most people agree are important

Political Culture

the broad pattern of ideas. beliefs, and values about citizens and government held by a population


citizens of subjects of another country who move to another country to live or work


production and distribution of a society's material resources and services

Miller Test

asks if the work "depicts or describes in an offensive way of sexual conduct


whether the work, taken as a whole lacks "serious, literary, artistic, political, or scientific value

First Amendment

freedom of press, religion, assembly and petition

Second Amendment

right to bear arms

Fourth Amendment

search and seizure

Fifth Amendment

due process of law

Sixth Amendment

right of persons on trial on crimes

Eighth Amendment

avoid cruel and unusual punishment

Prior Restraint

censorship of or punishment for the expression of ideas are printed or spoken


written defamation of character


who gets what, when, and how


the ability to get others to do what you want

How do you know if you have power?

prevent someone from doing something they would normally do, make someone do something they would not do, and influence how others think

Politics and Government

government is the system or organization that exercises the authority over a group of people


directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity

Economic Liberals

those who favor expanded government role in the economy, but a limited role in the social order

Economic Conservatives

those who favor a strictly procedural government role in the economy and the social order


those who favor a minimal government role in any sphere

Social Conservatives

those who endorse limited government control of the economy, but considerable government intervention

Social Liberals

those who favor greater control of the economy and the social order

French and Indian War

war fought between England and France, where England had to tax the colonists to pay for the war. As a result, the first continental congress was formed

Sugar Act 1764

tax on sugar

Townshend Acts 1767

tax on good imported from England

Tea Act 1773

tax on tea; Boston Tea Party

Boston Tea Party

colonists dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor and as a result, the coercive acts were passed

Articles of Confederation

states got one vote, proceedings were secretCongress could NOT;-draft military-regulate commerce-tax

Shays Rebellion

led by Daniel Shays from Massachusetts, where a bunch of farmers protested against the government

Virginia Plan

bicameral legislature, strengthened power of national government, and the members of the lower chamber were apportioned by the population. favored large states

New Jersey Plan

unicameral legislature, equal representation regardless of population, and state legislature picked the delegates

Connecticut Compromise

bicameral legislature, lower chamber (House of Representatives) was based on population, and the upper chamber (Senate) based on equality

3/5 Compromise

the formula for creating five slaves as three people for the purposes of representation of the slaves

Legislative Branch

makes the laws

Executive Branch

executes" the law

Judicial Branch

interprets the law

Separation of Powers

assigns each branch a different person or group

Checks and Balances

the principle that allows each branch to exercise some form of control over the other branches


supporters of the constitution who favored a strong central government


advocates of states' rights and opposed the constitution

The Federalist Papers

85 essays written in support of the Constitution for its ratification

Federalist #10

written by Madison and discussed how factions were dangerous


a political system in which power is divided between the state and federal government

Dual Federalism

the federal system under which the national and state governments are responsible for separate policy areas

Cooperative Federalism

the federal system under which the national and state government share responsibilities for most domestic policy areas

Necessary and Proper Clause

constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers

Reserved Powers

states may regulate behavior and enforce order for general wealth, health, safety, and morals of citizens

Concurrent Powers

includes taxing, borrowing/spending money, establishing court systems, and regulating elections

Writ of Habeas Corpus

individuals convicted of a crime have the right to go before a judge and answer charges

Supremacy Clause

Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the supreme law of the land; when the state and national laws conflict, the national laws will be followed

McCulloh vs. Maryland

happened in 1819; did Congress have the power to charter a bank and did Maryland have the power to tax that bank

Gibbons vs. Ogden

happened in 1824; about interstate business

Dred Scott vs. Sanford

a black man who lived in a free territory and lived of good character and then was considered not a person

Categorical Grants

federal funds provided for a specific purpose, restricted by instructions, regulations, and compliance standards

Block Grants

federal funds provided for a broad purpose unrestricted by detailed requirements and regulations

Unfunded Mandates

a federal order for mandating that states operate and pay for a program created at the national level

Civil Liberties

individual freedoms guaranteed to the people primarily by the Bill of Rights

Habeas Corpus

the right of an accused person to be brought before a judge and informed of the charges and evidence against him or her

Bill of Attainder

laws under which specific persons or groups are detained and sentenced without trial

Ex Post Facto Law

laws that criminalize an action after it occurs


speech that criticizes the government

Ideas Uniting Americans

1. Democracy- fair way of making decisions2. Freedom-guaranteed civil liberties3. Equality-everyone has an equal chance of opportunity


sets of beliefs about politics and society that help people make sense of their world

Unitary System

the government holds all the power

Confederal System

states hold the power

Federal System

sharing of power between state and government