Testing and Individual Differences AP Test Study Guide

What statistical method is used in studies designed to determine the primary components of intelligence?

Factor Analysis

Which type of test is designed to determine the primary components of intelligence?

An Achievement test. EX: the tests you take in this class, and AP tests

The intelligence quotient (IQ) has traditionally been based on the relationship between an individual's mental age and what other factor (age)?

Chronological Age

What was Terman's contribution to intelligence testing? What was generally true of participants in Lewis Terman's longitudinal study on intellectually gifted children?

He conducted the best-known and most extensive study of gifted children. Have found gifted students tend to do well and be well adjusted later in life.

What is reliability? What are the types? Know examples of each, especially split-half reliability.

Reliability: Means that a test must produce consistent results when it is administered on repeated occasions.
Split-half reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. EX:**
Test-Retest reliability: Using

What is validity? Know the different types and examples of each, especially content, construct, and predictive validity.

Validity: The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait. EX:**
Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behav

What did Charles Spearman call a general intelligence? How did he define this concept?

G-Factor. He observed that an individuals score on various tests of intellectual performance correlated with one another. Based upon this observation, he proposed that intelligence is a single underlying factor, which he termed G factor. Concluded that th

Know how to calculate IQ. Here's an example, you will have a couple of these questions. Diane is a 10-year-old girl with a mental age of 12. According to the scoring of the Stanford-Binet test, what is Diane's intelligence quotient score?

IQ=Mental Age/ Chronological Age X100

Know how to interpret percentages score from tests. Several examples on test. Here's one: What do we know about the scores of a student who obtained a percentile rank of 75 on an achievement test?


What information does the correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single tests yield?


What psychometric property is used to assess the extent to which the items on the intelligence test measure a person's intelligence?

construct validity

In a normal distribution, what percentage of people falls between one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below the mean?


The performance of the group on which an IQ test is standardized set the what? starts with N


What is the definition of intelligence upon which most experts could agree?

The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment." Most experts view intelligence as a persons ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.

Individuals with a diagnosis of mental retardation who are the most cognitively disabled are at what level? What is the cause of down syndrome?

Have an IQ of 70 to 7 5 or below. Genetic Abnormalities

Who developed the idea that intelligence consists of two types, crystallized and fluid?

Raymond Cattell

Summarize what happens to crystallized and fluid intelligence as we age. What are examples of what happens to both types of intelligence as we age?

Fluid declines with age. EX: Memory, speed of information processing, and reasoning abilities, such as forming new concepts, seeing underlying relationships, and quickly solving unfamiliar problems.
Crystallized remains stable or increases slightly with a

What is psychometrics and on what statistical technique is it based?

Factor Analysis

Define know several examples of achievement test.

Measures what a person has already learned in prior training. EX: the tests you take in this class and AP tests

Define and know several examples of aptitude test.

Designed to measure future performance. The ability to learn or to develop proficiency in an area. EX: SAT and ACT

What evidence is cited(notes and textbook) to support the idea that intelligence is inherited?


What evidence (notes and text) provides the strongest evidence of environment's role in intelligence?

Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence.
IQ can easily be affected by the environment.
Enriched environments must be sustained to maintain positive out

The test created by Alfred Binet was designed specifically to measure that in whom?

Mental Abilities in school children

Who stated that differences in intelligence was quantifiable, were normally distributed, and that intelligence could be measured objectively? Hint: advocate for the eugenics movement

Sir Francis Galton

What are four important criticisms of intelligence tests?... but are they reliable?

Achievement rather than inherent abilities, culturally biased, lead to self-fulfilling prophecy, and may be biased against those who are educationally disadvantaged

On individual intelligence test such as the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler scales, what does an IQ of 100 indicate about the test taker?

It is the average score of most test takers.

What is a self-fulfilling prophecy? Know at least two examples of it in action.

IQ and other test scores can be very powerful labels that affect how others see a person and how a person sees himself or herself. A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a persons expectations of another person leads that person to behave in the expected

What is it called when we refer to the potential of an individual to preform an as-yet-unlearened task?


What are four reasons for requiring clearly specified procedures for the administration and scoring assessment measures, such as standardized tests?

allow comparisons reduce the possible effects of extraneous (outside) variables, increase the reliability and validity, increase the objectivity of the scoring procedures

The validity of a personality test is best indicated by the correlation between test scores and some other relevant measure.


What is indicated if one receives a Full Scale IQ score of 125 of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale?

they have a higher IQ than about 97% of people; well above the first standard deviation

To score high on a test creativity, a person's answers should be original and valuable.


What should the characteristics of standardization samples for developing a test?

uniformly presented to a large, representative sample of people

During development of standardized test, what happens to questions that are answered correctly by almost all students and those that are missed by almost all students? Why does this happen?

questions thrown out; doesn't show difference

What is the bell-shaped distribution of intelligence scores in the general population is called?

standardized norms

What is emotional intelligence? Know examples of someone with low or high EI.

emotional intelligence: related to interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences; the ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions

In a normal distribution of test scores, what percentage of scores fall at or below the mean?


How is the Intellgence Quotient is defined:

mental age/ chronological x 100

According to Sternberg, which types of intelligences are included in his triarchic theory?

analytical, practical, creative

In what country did modern intelligence testing originate? Who is credited with he development of the first intelligence test? What was the original purpose of the test?

China; Sir Francis Galton; civil service or eugenics

Who revised the Binet-Simon scale for the use in the United States?

Lewis Terman

Know four facts concerning brain anatomy and intelligence.

1. brain volume using MEI scans reveal a more significant correlation between brain size and intelligence scores
2. brains of highly intelligent people have more synapses
3. higher intelligence scores correlate with more gray matter in brain areas involve

If test have been pretested with a sample of the population for whom the test is intended and have a uniform set of instructions and administration procedures they are said to have been what?


What is currently the most popular individually administered adult intelligence test?

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

What type of intelligence is likely to increase as a normal, healthy individual age?


What is cultural bias in intelligence testing? What is a culture-fair test?

culture-fair testing is unbiased; the cultural bias in intelligence testing is having the questions **

What is the Flynn Effect?


What do most psychologists believe is the cause of racial gaps in test scores, environmental facts or genetic?


What is data from comparison groups that permit the score of an individual to be assessed relative to the scores of his or her peers are called?


Who introduced the measure known known as the intelligence quotient (IQ)?

William Stern

How do curent intelligence test compute an individual's intelligence score?

by comparing the amount by which the test-taker's performance deviates from the average performance of others the same age

What is the current estimated percent of the total variation among intelligence scores that can attributed to genetic factors?


What does it indicated if an individual scores 100 on an intelligence tests such as the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler scales?

they are in the center of the bell curve(68%)**

List four facts about Howard Gardner's theory of intelligence.


Be able to recognize the independent and dependent variable in a study. In the same study that id the researcher's conclusion is p=.05 the difference between the two groups is statistically significant.


When a research psychologist generalizes from a particular sample to an entire population, they are making a statistical reference.


Which of the following graphs shows the most desirable test-retest correlation?