NCE Lifestyle and Career Development A

Lifestyle and career development have been emphasized:

since the beginning of the counseling and guidance movement and are still major areas of concern. Several former ACA presidents ( e.g., Sam Gladding and Mark Pope) wisely posit that counseling is the only mental health profession with proficiency in the a

Frank Parsons

The beginning of the guidance movement has often been associated with the work of Parsons who started the Boston Vocation Bureau on January 13, 1908, just 9 months prior to his death. He was a Cornell graduate who later became Boston's chief law clerk and

How do neophyte counselors really feel about conducting career counseling?

Most of the literature suggests that grad students and beginning counselors sport a negative attitude toward the career counseling and see the work of performing personal counseling is having more prestige. Interestingly enough, career counseling trailbla

the "glass ceiling phenomenon

suggests that women are limited in terms of how far they can advance of the world of work. The glass ceiling effect is a form of occupational sex-role stereotyping that can limit women's careers. The concept is somewhat analogous to the lavender ceiling w

the "displaced homemaker

One notion is that the high divorce rate (which currently impacts nearly one out of 2 marriages) created the phenomenon of the "displaced homemaker." A displaced homemaker is a woman with children who was a homemaker but is currently in need of work to su

Most research in the area of career development and its relationship to students indicates that:

a very high proportion of students in high school and at the junior high or middle school level wanted guidance in planning a career. Career interests are more stable after college. All levels including high school and college wide career counseling. Thre

Victor Vroom

motivation and management expectancy theory; suggests that an employee's performance is influenced by valence (will the work provide rewards such as money, a promotion, or satisfaction?); expectancy (what does the person feel he or she is capable of doing

a dual-career family (or dual-worker couple) is one in which both partners have jobs to which they are committed on a somewhat continuous basis. What is true of dual-career families?

Dual-career families have higher incomes than the so-called traditional family in which only one partner is working. Nevertheless, since both partners are working there are more problems related to household chores and responsibilities. Competition betwee

In the dual-career family, partners seem to be more self-sufficient that in the traditional family. In a dual-career household, the woman:

is typically secure in her career before she has children. In the traditional family, the woman generally has children before entering the workforce.

Career Counseling vs. Vocational Guidance

Guidance is seen as a developmental and educational process within a school system while career counseling is viewed as a therapeutic service for adults performed outside an educational setting.

Statistics reveal that:

On average, a worker with a bachelors degree earns over $10,000 a year more than a worker with a high school diploma. ($51,206 vs. $27,912). Asians had the highest percentage of individuals with a bachelor's degree, followed by Whites, African Americans,

the changing view of work

In the past work was seen as drudgery, while today it is seen as a vehicle to express our identity, self-esteem, and status. In the past, work was primarily a way to pay the bills. Today, the rewards of a career are often conceptualized as fulfilling emot


The notion in psychology which suggested that speed, skills, and retention would decrease as one entered old age. However, some research demonstrates that older workers are actually more adept than younger ones in terms of skill as well as speed. Experien

When professional career counselors use the term "leisure" they technically mean:

the time the client has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations/in which the individual has the freedom to choose what s/he would like to do. Leisure time is said to be "self-determined." A leisure activity that one engages in for pleas


the total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure.

gender bias

I feel I cannot really become an administrator in our agency because I am a woman." The ideal answer to this dilemma was set form in 1964 when Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (amended in 1972) stated that women would have equal work opportunities and e

adverse impact

A test or selection process is said to have adverse impact if it does not meet the "80% Four-fifths Rule." Here, the hiring rate for minorities is divided by figure for nonminorities. If the quotient is less than 80% (4/5s), then adverse impact is evident

differential validity

is evident when a selection process (e.g., a test) is valid for one group, yet less valid or totally invalid for another group. [*This is NOT the same as "discriminant validity."] Tests plagued by differential validity should not be utilized for hiring or

counselor bias

might be used to describe a counselor who was sympathetic with the agency's position.

trait-and-factor theory (trait-factor/actuarial/matching approach)

This first major and most durable theory of career choice assumes that via psychological testing one's personality could be matched to an occupation which stressed those particular personality traits; it attempts to match the worker and the work environme

developmental theory and career choice

views career decisions as longitudinal and reversible.

Choosing a Vocation

This Parsons' work stressed a careful self-analysis conducted "under guidance" and then put down on paper to determine your personal "traits." The traits could then be matched to occupations using advice from individuals who had "made a careful study of m

Edmund Griffith Williamson

the chief spokesperson for the so-called Minnesota Viewpoint, which expanded upon Parsons' model to create a theory of counseling which transcended vocational issues.

a psychoanalytic theory of career counseling:

attempts to match conscious and unconscious work motives. Note: Most popular career theories are based on middle-class or upper middle-class white males who are heterosexual and not disabled.

Is the trait-and-factor model grounded in "differential psychology?

Yes. Differential psychology is the study of individual differences. The assumption in this approach is that human beings are rational. Hence, when the proper information (e.g., from tests) is available, the individual can make a proper or wise choice of

Roe and Brill

espoused personality theories of career choice; experts began to question the notion that a single "right" occupation" existed for each personality profile.


suggested that a person's personality needs to be congruent with the work environment.


emphasized career development rather than career choices. He was the most popular developmental career theorist. Super emphasizes the self-concept. The assumption here is that the individual chooses a career which allows the self-concept to be expressed.

Tiedeman and O'Hara

support a decision-making theory.

Parsons suggests three steps to implement the trait-and-factor approach:

1. Knowledge of the self and aptitudes and interests; usually relies on psychometric information.
2. Knowledge of jobs, including the advantages and disadvantages of them.
3. Matching the individual's traits with the requirements of the job.
The trait-and

the fourth force in counseling

has been suggested to describe "multiculturalism;" third force psychology usually refers to humanistic approaches.

developmental approaches

focus on career maturity; delineate stages or specify vocational choice in terms of a process which can change throughout the life span. Thus, vocational development parallels psychosocial, cognitive, and personality development. Eli Ginzberg, an economis

Edmund Griffith Williamson's work (or the so-called Minnesota Viewpoint) purports to be scientific and didactic, utilizing test date from instruments such as the:

Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales; this is a test specifically aimed at enhancing the actuarial approach to career choice. Williamson was associated with the University of Minnesota for over 40 years.

Tests that would probably be the favorites of counselors who favor a personality theory of career choice:

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey (GZTS), the Adjective Checklist, BDI, and MMPI-2. The model is not overly popular with current counselors and has been sarcastically referred to as the "test-and-tell" parad

The trait-and-factor approach fails to take ___ into account.

individual change throughout the life span. This has been a major criticism of this model and perhaps accounts for some of the popularity of developmental theories.

Anne Roe suggested a personality approach to career choice:

based on the premise that a job satisfies an unconscious need. This American clinical psychologist was one of the first individuals to suggest a theory of career choice based heavily on personality theory. Some exams refer to Roe's work as the "person-env

Roe was the first career specialist to utilize a two-dimensional system of occupational classification utilizing:

fields and levels. The 8 occupational "fields" include: service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and arts/entertainment. The six "levels" of occupational skill include: professional and managerial 1, profess

Roe spoke of 3 basic parenting styles: overprotective, avoidant, or acceptant. The result is that the child:

will develop a personality which gravitates (i.e., moves) toward people or away from people. Some exams will refer to the avoidant child rearing style as "rejecting." It is an emotionally cold or hostile style. The acceptant style is "democratic." If the

Roe's theory relies on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the sense that in terms of career choice:

lower order needs take precedence over higher order needs; the job meets the "most urgent need." The choice of a career helps to satisfy an individual's needs.

Some support for Roe's theory comes from:

the Rorschach and the TAT (both projective tests).

In terms of genetics, Roe's theory would assert that:

genetics help to determine intelligence and education, and hence this influences one's career choice. Roe: career choice is influenced by genetics, parent-child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, interests (people/things), education, and

job or position

(clerk at Main Street Plumbing). A job refers to a given position or similar positions within an organization. An occupation is broader and refers to similar jobs occupied via different people in different settings (e.g., psychotherapists). Career is the

Roe recognized the role of the unconscious mind in terms of career choice. Another theorist who emphasized the unconscious processes in this area of study was:

Edwin Bordin; he felt that career choices could be used to solve unconscious conflicts. Psychoanalytic approaches--used in regard to career choices or other issues--have never been extremely popular with helpers trained in counseling departments since sho


worked with a behavioristic model (reinforcers); his approach to career counseling is considered a cognitive approach (irrational cognitions).

Another career theorist who drew upon psychoanalytic doctrines was A. A. Brill. Brill emphasized ___ as an ego-defense mechanism.

sublimation; this occurs when an individual expresses an unacceptable need in a socially acceptable manner (a person, for example, who likes to cut things up might pursue a career as a butcher or perhaps a surgeon).

Today the most popular approach to career choices reflects:

the work of John Holland. His theory can be best described by his 4 assumptions. First, in our culture, there are 6 basic personality types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional. Second, most work environments correspo

Holland categorized ___ personality (modal) orientations which correspond to analogous work environments.

six (artistic, conventional, enterprising, investigative, realistic, and social). In this theory, the counselor attempts to find a job for the client in which the personality/environment interaction is congruent. Holland felt that people try to avoid envi

Most experts in the field of career counseling would classify Roe, Brill, and Holland as ___ theorists.


Counselors who support John Holland's approach believe that:

an appropriate job allows one to express his/her personality (& 6 major personality categories exist). Holland did believe in stereotypes, and some critics have said his theory is too simplistic and somewhat sexist.

Holland's "social" personality category

includes teachers, counselors, speech therapists, and social workers. Holland said that the person in the "social" category prefers to solve problems using interpersonal skills and feelings.

Holland's "enterprising" personality category

includes the vice president of the United States; other enterprising occupations would include real estate agents, business owners, television producers, and hotel managers. The "enterprising" person likes to sell to others or perform leadership tasks. S/

Holland's "realistic" personality category

includes a person who wishes to work on an assembly line. The "realistic" or "motoric" person likes machines, physical labor, and enjoys working with tools. This individual might become a truck driver, an auto mechanic, or might be drawn toward plumbing.

Holland's "investigative" personality category

includes a research chemist. The "investigative" personality type like to think his/her way through a problem. Occupations congruent with this type includes scientists, design engineers, geologists, mathematicians, and philosophers.

Holland's "artistic" personality category

seems to value feelings over pure intellect or cognitive ability; includes a ballet instructor, fiction writer, or singer for a rock band. The "artistic" type shuns conformity as well as structure. The emphasis is on self-expression.

Holland's "conventional" personality category

includes a bookkeeper or clerical worker. The "conventional" type values conformity, structure, rules, and feels comfortable in a subordinate role. Statisticians, bank clerks, and controllers fit this stereotype (the person psychologically defines him/her

In regard to an individual's behavioral style or so-called modal orientation, Holland believed that:

most people are not pure personality types and thus can best be described by a distribution of types such as Realistic, Social, Investigative (RSI). The Strong Interest Inventory (SII) is based on Holland's model. Although each individual has a primary di

Holland believed that:

a given occupation will tend to attract person with similar personalities. Like Roe, Holland felt that early childhood development influences adult personality characteristics.

Holland relied on a personality theory of career choice. Hoppock's theory, based on the work of ___ is also considered a personality approach.

Henry Murray; he created the "needs-press" theory and the TAT (along with Christina Morgan) projective test. The occupation is used to meet a person's current need.

Robert Rosenthall

is famous for his research regarding the "experimenter effect.

David Wechsler

is well-known for creating the Wechsler intelligence scales.