AP Euro ch. 29 studyguide

In 1991, a group of antireform hard-liners that included the head of the Soviet secret police attempted a coup in the USSR in response to what event?

The Russian Parliament's election of Boris Yeltsin as president

The war in Chechnya began when Chechens....

declared independence from Russia

Which of the following was a consequence of the tremendous worldwide migrations due to

decolonization, war, and famine in the 1980s and 1990s? The decline in national identities in favor of transnational ones that incorporated elements of different cultures

During the 1990s and early 2000s, growing but unsuccessful demands for autonomy from larger nation-states were made by various ethnic groups, including which of the following?

Basque nationalists in Spain.

French farmer José Bové became known globally for his activism on what issue?

The Fast food industry - particularly McDonalds

What was one of the major reasons that countries in the Southern Hemisphere, with few exceptions, experienced lower standards of living in the 1980s and 1990s?

Even though colonial rule and exploitation by the North had ended, its legacy continued to have a negative impact on living standards

Large-scale conflict and genocide brought on by ideological factionalism and ethnic antagonisms were particularly devastating to which of the following countries?

Somalia, Rwanda, and Sudan

Although Iraq's president Saddam Hussein attacked Iran in September 1980 primarily for its oil-rich territory, he also

Feared his own country's Shi'ite minority and hoped to heighten their sense of solidarity with Iraq's Sunni majority through a "patriotic" war against non-Arabs.

The invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein's Iraqi forces in 1990 was countered by

the USSR joined the United States and other members of the United Nations to stop the invasion, thus signaling a post-cold war shift, whereby smaller powers could no longer exploit superpower rivalry to further their own agendas

Which South African leader began the process of dismantling apartheid and released Nelson Mandela from prison after almost three decades of incarceration?

F. W. de Klerk

By the end of the twentieth century, some 60 percent of the national income of Egypt, Spain, Mexico, and Pakistan... Was sent into the country by migrant laborers working abroad Why did the culture of the United States become dominant during the late twentieth and early twenty-first century?

English was the dominant international language, and the US was successful in marketing its cultural output

In the area of social policy, the 1980s and 1990s in western countries witnessed a decline in government support for the welfare state and a return of 19th century liberal values with their

championship of competition, individualism, and a life of privilege for the well to do.

the demise of the soviet union in the 1990s not only led to the est. of new democratic republics in formerly soviet-controlled territories, but also let to...

an increase in ethnic conflicts in many of the newly independent states as different ethnic groups struggled for land and power.

the principle difficulty of historians in assessing the events of this period is the...

lack of perspective that makes it difficult to evaluate the significance of events

In 1994, by the terms of the Maastricht Treaty, the European Community became

the European Union

The formation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a free-trade zone of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, was provoked by

the economic success of—and potential competition from—the European Union.

The measures that European governments undertook in the 1980s and 1990s to combat rising pollution levels include all of the following except

widespread use of corn-based ethanol as an alternate fuel source.

The growing awareness of the damage to the environment and the effect this might have on human life led to the Kyoto Protocol,an international treaty designed to reduce the level of emissions and other pollutants around the world. The promise of cooperation on this issue was dashed

when the United States, the world's top polluter, refused to sign the treaty

After 1995, population in Europe began what many predicted would be a

sharp decline

By late 1999, the earth's human population had reached 6 billion, and was forecast to

double by 2045

The percentage of Africans who lack access to basic health care is

roughly 50%

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) initially arose in


Avian flu virus initially appeared in


During this period, a new threat to the world economy emerged in the form of deadly new contagious diseases, particularly

the Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

In general, citizens of countries in the Southern Hemisphere suffered lower living standards and measures of health than those in the Northern Hemisphere, except for those of

Austria and New Zealand

A cause of unrest in the countries of the Middle East for many years-and which came to a head in war and terrorism during this period-was that,

even though Muslims were numerous and constituted the majority of the population in parts of the Middle East, Shi'ite Muslims had long been ruled by Sunni Muslims.

During this period, which country lent territory to anti-Western radicals who trained and recruited militant activists?


The last twenty years of the twentieth century witnessed a momentous shift in economic power and commercial activity from the Atlantic to the Pacific region, making Japan the

second largest national economy in the world.

Worldwide, warfare since 1945 has killed some

100 million

Since 1945, more than 100 million victims worldwide have been claimed by


Some 60 percent of the national income of Egypt, Spain, and Pakistan was sent into the country by

migrant laborers working abroad

Egyptian author Naguib Mahfouz won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1988, but other Egyptians denounced his work by claiming that his works were written to appeal to

Western audiences instead of reflecting true Egyptian literary styles.

Toward the end of the twentieth century, individual artistic expressions of contentious national, religious, and international issues could be dangerous, as was the case with the

Iranian government-sanctioned call to assassinate the writer Salman Rushdie.

Beginning in the 1960s, the French gov't attempted to slow the tide of an English-speaking international culture

by Banning the use of non-French words such as computer in official documents

EF "Fritz" Schumacher, an escapee from Nazi Germany, published Small is Beautiful

A key text of the environmental movement, which spelled out how tech and industrialization threatened life on earth

in the late twentieth century, fossil fuel pollutants such as those from natural gas, coal, and oil, mixed with atmospheric moisture, were blamed for causing

acid rain

Colombian-born Nobel Prize winner Gabriel García Márquez and other Latin American authorsdeveloped what literary style that melded everyday events with Latin American history andgeography, while also incorporating elements of myth, magic, and religion?

magic realism

The global response to the atrocities of the Balkan wars, particularly massacres such as the one at Srebrenica, was generally thought to be

?horrified/they just wanted to maintain peace?

Why did Poland and Hungary emerge from the transition to a market economy with less strain than other nations in the former Soviet bloc?

?they did not have a highly competitive trading market?

What unique challenges did artists and writers in the former Soviet bloc face after the collapse of the Soviet Union?

Soviet dissidents lost their subject matter and it seed less heroic to the West, while state-sponsored artists suddenly lost their jobs