EOC biology standard 3.0 energy flow and matter


term for processes that require oxygen

alcoholic fermentation

the process by which pyruvic acid is convened to ethyl alcohol; the process but that occurs as yeast act anaerobically on the sugar found in fruits and grains.


term for processes that do not require oxygen

ATP(adenosine triphosphate)

A compound that contains to energy phosphate bonds and is an important source of energy for cells

biogeochemical cycle

circulation of substances through living organisms to or from the environment

c3 plant

A plant that fixes carbon using the calvin cycle where carbon dioxide is converted into 3 carbon compounds which then can be turned into 6 carbon sugars

c4 plant

plant that fixes carbon using an alternative pathway in which the first product is a four carbon compound

Calvin cycle

A series of carbon-fixing, sugar-producing, reactions in tge chloroplasts; they use the CO2 and energy produced in the light reaction of photosynthesis


crassulacean acid metabolism, a form of photosynthesis used by desert plants

carbon fixation

the process in which carbon is incorporated into carbon compounds

carbon cycle

the overall circulation of carbon in the biosphere by photosynthesis, and the return of carbon to the atmosphere by respiration and decay; includes the processes of respiration, fermentation, decomposition, and combustion


green pigment which absorbs light during photosynthesis


organelles containing chlorophyll and other pigments; the site of photosynthesis in plant cells

electron transport chain

molecules in a membrane within a cell through which high-energy, electrons are passed to move photons across the membrane in order to produce


process in which food molecules are broken down to produce energy in the absence of oxygen


the first stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down into a molecule of pyruvate


stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast

kreb cycle

the central stage of aerobic respiration in which a series a reactions produce ATP, electron carriers, and carbon dioxide

lactic acid fermentation

the chemical process by which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid under anaerobic conditions

light dependent reaction

the first phase of photosynthesis in whicg light is use to split water molecules and produce ATP on thylakoid membranes

light independent reaction

the second phase of photosynthesis in which ATE' and NADPH react with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to form a carbohydrate


organelle that supplies the cell with A1? for energy by performing oxidative respiration

nitrogen cycle

worldwide circulation and reutilization of nitrogen atoms. Plants take up inorganic nitrogen and convert it into organic compounds which are assimilated into the bodies of organisms

oxygen cycle

the cycle of oxygen movement as it enters the atmosphere through photosynthesis and is used by organisms through respiration


the process of organisms, primarily green plants, using the light energy to produce ATP and organic molecules


A process of organisms in which organic molecules such as glucose are broken down and energy is released


fluid matrix of chloroplast; where the light independent reaction occurs


flattened membrane-bound sacs in the chloroplast; where the light dependent reaction occurs

water cycle

A continuous movement of water from points of the evaporation through the atmosphere, through precipitation, and through or over the ground, returning to points of evaporation.