Exam 2 MKTG 325


Underlies the reasons that encourage people to undertake certain actions, state in which our energy is mobilized and directed in a selective fashion toward states of affairs in the external environment.


Are internal forces that prompt behavior toward goal-oriented solutions. Needs are requirements, not necessarily deficiencies in our assortment of goods and services. Physiological and acquired needs


Tension states that push us to act in order to satisfy a felt need. Anticipation of satisfaction from something that perceived as being useful or neccessary


Sought-after objectives of motivation. Pull us toward attainment. Generic and brand specific


passions that involve longing and fervent wishing for something. acknowledges rich meanings and emotional involvement with coveted goods


A tension state resulting mainly from unfilled needs

Sources of arousal

physiological cues, emotional cues, cognitive cues, environmental cues


an end toward which behavior is promoted. State of tension that exists as a need arises activates or moves the individual toward purposive behavior in the form of a goal

Requirements for a motivated state

Both arousal and direction are needed

Arousal without direction

Can result in a frustrating state for the consumer or the marketers creation of generic demand for a product but losing the sale to a competitor

Conscious needs

Reasons for a behavior are clear to him or her, motives do not need to be aroused

Unconscious needs

Person does not know why a particular behavior was taken

High urgency

needs require immediate attention and satisfaction

Low urgency

doesn't require immediate astisfaction

Positive polarity

lead individuals toward desired goals

Negative polarity:

steer people away from adverse consequences

Intrinsic motivation:

Behavior undertaken for the inherent pleasure of the activity itself. The behavior is the reward

Extrinsic motivation

Behavior undertaken in order to acquire rewards that are independent of the activity .

Rational motives

those aroused through appeals to reason and logic, stress objective, utilitarian goals such as economy, durability, quality, and dependability

Emotional motives

entail goal selection that relies on subjective criteria. Often whimsical rather than based on information and repurchase deliberation, "Pursuit of fantasies, feelings, and fun" Focus on the symbolic, hedonistic, and aesthetic nature of consumption

Is emotional motivation irrational?

No, spending extra money for emotional satisfaction is reasonable

Instinct theory

Behavior is innate. Instincts are genetically-transmitted, physical and behavior characteristics of a species that enable it to survive. Behavior reflects the adaption of creatures to their environment. Still useful to marketers.


behavior reflects our efforts to restore physical or psychological equilibrium. Homeostasis is an automatic, self regulating mechanism hypothesized to maintain harmony of all body system. Marketers use of fear and guilt appeals.

Arousal theory

People often speak a stimulation rather than avoid it


Optimal stimulation level. Refers to a measurement of individuals tendency to seek or avoid thrilling, challenging activities

High sensation seekers:

Have a stronger than average urge to pursue challenges and thrills

Low sensation seekers:

prefer regularity and predictability; tend to avoid excitement and challenges

Cognitive theory

Behavior is a rational act undertaken by goal-oriented, intelligent, information-processing individuals, capable of making wise choices. Human behavior is purposeful


Measures individual differences in sensation seeking along four dimensions

Maslow needs

Higher order needs arise only after lower-order needs are sufficiently satisfied. In affluent nations advertising appeals make reference to higher-order needs.

Instrumental motives:

Learned patterns of behavior that are solicited in the service of a basic need. More effective as ad themes because they translate into brand specific choices

Motivational conflict

Where multiple contradictory needs simultaneously act upon an individual

Approach Approach

Both decisions have pleasant affects


One decision causes a pleasant effect, the other negative


Lesser of two evils


An individuals physiological and or psychological response to particular stimuli in the environment.

Promotional applications of emotion

Enhance attitude formation and change by means of attracting and holding consumer attention, amplifying mental processing, increasing consumer involvement with the product, improving ad retention, increasing liking for the ad. Ads use relevant and or irrelevant emotions to increase messages effectiveness


A temporary feeling state or frame of mind such as being in a good or bad mood. State that is already present when an individual encounters a stimulus


Connecting the consumer and the brand through an emotional tie

PAD: Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance

Scales anchored by opposite phrases, with intermediate positions to select

Self-Assessment Manikin

Pain chart in a hospital

Motivation research

Explores the why aspects of human behavior via techniques developed in clinical psychology but adapted for consumer research. Projective techniques, association tests (Free word associations)

When are projective techniques administered

Used in an interview with an individual respondent

Association test:

Interviewer tosses out phrases and the respondent states the first thing to come to mind. An instant reply reflects the gut feeling

Projective technique

Speaking on behalf of somebody else, but revealing your own thoughts on a subject. "Stepping into someone else's shoes

TAT: Thematic apperception test

Pictures and photographs, tell a story about the picture

Cartoon technique:

What is the person thinking or saying in a picture

Free word:

First word that comes to mind

Focus groups

Consist of 8 to 12 individuals drawn from the population under study, elicit participants free flow of views and ideas

How do marketers address the ID of freudian model

Emphasize the pleasure and self-indulgent aspects of product or service offerings. Sexual, sensuous themes and suggestive double meanings. Depictions of aggressive scenes or violent acts, wish fulfillment themes

How do marketers address the the ego of freudian model

Messages and offers that soften the reality of paying a price to purchase goods and services. Providing credit policies and payment plans, sales incentives, free offers

How do marketers address the superego?

Emphasizing social amenities, ethical or moral protocols, and references to tradition. Provide legitimate and or spurious arguments in ad copy in order to help consumer surmount guild and rationalize or justify their purchases

Defense mechanisms

Psychological alignment to deny and distort reality to support our ego

Marketing applications of neb-freudian theory

Ad campaigns that emphasize social relationships and human interaction. Promotional appeals frequently depict warm interaction between individuals in a social or family setting. May also emphasize the role of products as enhancers of positive realtionships

CAD scale

A paradigm that classifies people based on their degree of compliance, aggression, and detachment. Classifies people as high or low on Horney's hypothesized behavior tendencies

Assumptions of trait theory

traits are identifiable and limited in number, traits are relatively stable, traits can be measured via behavioral indicators, people who possess similar traits to a similar traits to a similar degree behave similarly

Standard clinical multi-trait personality

Hypothesize which specific personality traits are linked to a particular consumer behavior of interest. Select a test that measures those traits

Tailor made and modified:

Focus on specific constellations of traits. Use multiple personality tests in combination, stripping away unnecessary items


asses consumers lifestyles so that meaningful consumer typologies can be identified. Used in defining product strategy, segmenting, targeting, developing ad campaign

AIO inventories

Activity interest opinions, lengthy questionnaire used to measure a consumers lifestyle

Three Primary consumer motivations

Ideals, achievement, self expression. Assumes that consumers with greater resources can afford to be more innovative

How many VALS segments in us version

Eight segments, all equal in size

What kinds of products is VALS useful

More expensive products, emotionally motivated products

Badge value

Product says something that says who you are and what you stand for

Ideal self

What you'd like to be

Self image

How you see yourself

Apparent self

How other people see you

Reference group

How you think other people see you

Extended self

You as reflected in most important posessions


What you like to become, what you think you'll become, what you fear of becoming

Self/Product congruence

When a product or brand image matches what we feel like our own image is

Symbolic goods

Tend to be recognized by individuals, steep price tag, prestigious origin

Why marketers study consumer lifestyles, personality, and self concept

For purposes of segmenting, targeting, and positioning


Involves giving respondents a number of cards, each containing a self describing statement or situation for the respondent to evaluate

3 kinds of freudian anxiety

Reality: Fear of storms, snakes, bugs. Neurotic: someone who would steal but afraid of being caught. Moral: Fear of your own conscious, fear of shame, embarrassment.

Constructive Processing

Engaging in a variety of shortcuts to make choices by weighing shopping effort against task importance. Tendency of consumers to tailor their cognitive effort to suit the task at hand

Programmed decisions

Habitual routines requiring special thought. Are revocable and can be reprogrammed. Brand Loyalty

Non Programmed decisions

Novel or infrequently encountered decisions requiring a tailored approach; extending problem solving, limited problem solving, impulse purchases.


Degree of personal relevance a product or service holds for the consumer

Low involement

Consumers attach minimal personal relevance to a purchase

High involvement

A case in which consumers attach elevated relevance to a purchase

Extending problem solving

An elevated level of expended effort used in making risky and significant decisions

Limited problem solving

A reduced level of expended effort used in making less-risky decisions

Sources of problem recognition

Assotment depletions, assortment inadequacies due to changing life circumstances, other product acquisitions, product obsolescence, expanded or contracted means, expanded awareness via marketing stimuli

Five stages of problem solving

Problem recognition, search activity, identifying and evaluating alternative solutions, purchase or commitment, post purchase considerations

Internal search

The process of retrieving relevant information from memory

External search

Seeking information from exogenous (outside) sources


A process of changing stimuli from ambiguous forms to more conventional ones


A process in which details are omitted in order to simplify the memory structure

How much external search really occurs

Little search occurs, except when products have symbolic meanings

What influences the amount of external search

Individual learning style, product involvement, experience, risk perception

Evoked sets

Few brands that come to mind when one thinks of a product category

Inert set

consists of all other brands and models that are not candidates for purchase

Consideration set

The number of brands and models we actually contemplate for purchase

Evaluative criteria:

Product characteristics that consumers use to judge the merits of competing options

Salient attributes

Important aspects of a product which affect the choices that consumers make

Determinant attributes

Those features on which alternatives are believed to differ and that consumers use to distinguish between brands and models

Agenda setting

Marketers job of educating consumers about which product attributes are important and which specific criteria consumers should use as determinant attributes when making selections among brands and models

Risk perception:

Highly subjective, different peopler perceive risk differntly

Risk reduction tactics

Comparison shop, look to reference groups and opinion leaders, try a free sample or trial quantity, look at the warranty, buy a brand that has proved satisfactory in the past, buy the most expensive, buy from stores we trust, select a classic style, choose a product or brand endorsed by a reputable organization, avoid being an innovator or laggard

How do consumers cope with missing information

Delay selection until missing information is obtained, ignore the missing information and decide, change the typically-use decision strategy to one that accommodates the missing information, infer the missing information


Simple rules of thumb. Higher price means better product

Prospect theory

Depiction of the relationship between the psychological valuation of gains and losses resulting from a course of action and the actual value of those gains and losses


Options or alternatives


Looking at someone in a gain perspective or loss perspective Half empty vs half full


Willing to trade off something, a high score of one attribute can offset the low score of another


All or nothing. A high score on one attribute can't overcome a low score on another

Key factors that determine customers post purchase satisfaction

Expended effort, consumer expectations

Instrumental performance

The utilitarian performance of the product as a means to a set of ends

Expressive performance:

the social or psychological aspects of the product that consumers regard as ends in themselves


A macro process concerned with the spread of a new product or idea within the marketplace


A micro process dealing with the stages in an individual goes through before accepting a production

Discontinuous innovations

New products that require significant adjustments to establish consumer routines

Dynamically continuous innovations

New products that require moderate adjustments to establish routines

Continuous innovations

New products that require minimum adjustments to established routines

Symbolic innovations

convey new social or psychological meanings

What is New

Products made available and distributed within a time span of less than six months, Perception of newness can result from changes to packaging, price, distribution, and promotional strategies, newness of a product to the firm doesn't constitute novelty to consumers

Common ways that firms generate new consumer products

adding line extensions, creating new to the world products, improving existing product quality, adding features to current products, adding value to current products, finding new uses or markets for current products

What factors influence the pace of consumer acceptance of new products

Relative advantage over existing products, compatibility with beliefs and values, simplicity of operation, observability and visibility to potential adopters, trainability to permit examination before purchase, divisibility to allow sampling

Social system and diffusion

Compatability, homogeneity, openness to novelty all affect the spread of diffusion

Rate of adoption

Relative speed with which consumers adopt an innovation

Frequency of purchase

Rate at which consumers repurchase an innovation


First 2.5% Venturesome; information from the web, higher social status, higher income, better educated

Early adopters

Next 13.5% Socially integrated and involved in their community; recognized as the true option leaders. Critical role in the acceptance or rejection of new products, services and ideas

early majority

next 34% adopt before average consumers; somewhat above average in social and economic standing, seek more information and evaluate more brands than EA's

Late majority

next 34% Skeptical, lack financial resources to purchase innovative products, adopt after acquaintances have done so. influenced by word of mouth


Final 16% resist changing established patterns of living


Reversal of a consumers decision to adopt an innovation

Replacement discontinuance

Newer and better products available

Disenchantment discontinuance

innovation fails to be perceived by consumers as better

forced discontinuance

a product becomes unavailable because it is banned, discontinued, otherwise withdrawn from distributin

Five barriers that serve as sources of consumer resistance to adopting innovations

Value, usage, risk, tradition, image

Value barriesr

Deficiency of the new product relative to price

Usage barrier

Difficulty of product use and or absence the new product from prospects routines

risk barriers

uncertainty and concern over possibly negative outcomes of adoption

tradition barriers

cultural norms and values that hamper adoption

Image barriers

presence of an unfavorable image of the new product.