Visual Pathway

Cones to optic nerve to optic chiasm to lateral geniculate nucleus to visual cortex.

Amacrine Cells

Inhibitory..Interact with retinal ganglion cells and bipolar cells.

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

Relay center in thalamus which transmits visual signals to the visual cortex

4 Tenants of Social Cognitive Theory

Social Cognitive theory challenges behaviorism in that it sees the mind as a complex filter that can influence our behavior based on factors other than rewards or punishment.1. Observational learning- One can learn from observing others and mimicking them. 2. Situational influence- Situations can effect behavior3. Self- Efficacy- A belief in one's ability to do something can determine whether they do it.4. Cognitive processes- Mental ability to develop theory based on information that will cause a behavior different than expected.

Sensory adaptation

The adapting or habituation of the senses to stimulus. Can occur both Physiologically and Psychologically.Phys- Candle store smells strong until olfactory cells are habituated.Psych- Party noisy until engaged in a conversation, then the mind focuses on only the stimulus of conversation.


CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR (long lasting)


Storage AND Retrieval

Response Bias

Our Minds are programmed to lower or raise response criteria dependent on perceived significance.

4 Limits to associative learning

Associative learning is similar to behaviorism concluding that we can learn to associate two things absent of conditioning.1. Rules based processing- We can expect or anticipate an UNconditioned stimulus.2. Latent Learning- We can learn something without rewards conditioning3. Biological predisposition- Subject may have a biological response to something that interferes with conditioning. (raccoon washing coin)4. Instinctive drift- After being conditioned, subject may revert to instinctual response from conditioned one.

A baby's cry becomes increasingly irritating to a parent...

Sensitization (positive feedback)- Opposite of sensory adaptation.

Retrograde Amnesia

Can't remember prior to accident but can still create new memories.

Prograde Amnesia

Can't form new memories, but can recall memories prior to accident.

Someone who quits smoking to breath more easily...

Escape learning.

A researcher wants to prove that smoking doesn't effect fitness. He chooses his smoker group from an aerobics class, and his non-smokers from a weight-loss class. This is an example of...

Pre-screening Bias. Choosing subjects that are likely to support your hypothesis.

Selective Attention

Focusing on only one thing in the environment. Often leads to inattentional blindness. We can become blind to everything but the focus.

Control v Automatic rocessing

Control processing requires attention while automatic is simply automatic. Learning to drive a car is first control, and gradually becomes more automatic.

Situational Modification

Past knowledge and experience can be used to make decisions and solve problems


A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. It is useful so that we can sort new ideas into an existing group, but also leads to bias and stereotyping as we assume things to fit into our schema. We are also less likely to RETAIN info that doesn't fit our schema. Schemas can adapt and change as we are exposed to new info that challenges ours.

Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development and their characteristics.

1- Sensorimotor: 0-2- Senses and motor and curiosity. Infants explore the world with senses. Object permanence developed. Language used for commands. Begin to act intentionally.2- Preoperational: 2-6- Symbolic thinking. Child has motor skills, but does not understand physical conservation. Thinks egocentrically, begins to develop concept of other minds.3- Concrete Operational: 6-11- 4- Formal Operational:

When do children begin to understand conservation and what is it?

They will not understand this idea during the preoperational stage (age 2-6) but during the concrete operational stage where they will understand that quantitative properties of an object do not change despite a change in physical appearance. (orange juice in a tall glass is not more volume than a short thick glass)

When does childhood end according to Piaget?

At age 11. This is the beginning of the formal operational stage where individuals learn to solve nonphysical problems and understand such concepts as liberty, love and other abstract ideas.


The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.

A child is asked what someone at the other side of a table sees, and the child lists what he himself sees. This is an example of...


A child learns that pulling a cat's tail causes him to move in the opposite direction. The child concludes that only inanimate objects move towards you when you pull them. The child has developed a....During what stage do children begin to develop these?

A schema. During the preoperational stage of cognitive development.

Which type of memory endures?

Semantic or meaning-based memory.

Age related memory changes...Procedural-Working-Semantic-Overall-

Procedural memory is fairly stable,Working declines with age,Semantic is stable,Overall memory has a slight decline.

Functional Fixedness

A failure to rcognize something as having more than one function. Ex: Looking for hours to find a screw driver to fix your silverware drawer when one of the knives in the drawer would work just as easily

Cognitive bias

An error in thinking that leads to an incorrect notion about something

If I choose an answer because it is what is most readily available in my mind, this is an example of...

Availability Heruistic

The window is broken,There are muddy footprints on the floor,My things are missing,Thus someone broke in and stole my stuff.This is an example of deductive or inductive reasoning?

Inductive reasoning or bottom up processing. You are more of a detective, clueing pieces together to form a reasonable conclusion. You cannot say with 100% certainty that this is what truly happened.

Anything containing castor oil is a laxative,These cookies have castor oil in them,Thus, these cookies are laxatives.

Deductive reasoning. If the premises are certain, then the conclusion must be 100% true.

When we are exposed to evidence that contradicts our beliefs, we ignore that evidence. This would be an example of...

Belief Perseverance.

Base rate falacy

We tend to make less logical assumptions based on our stereotypes. Ex: We would assume someone who wears a tweed coat with patches and a big bow tie is someone with a phd in english before assuming that he works at a restaurant, even though there is a much greater population of people who work in restaurants than those who receive said phd. The logical inference would be that he is a server.


We ignore facts based on confidence i our own perception and decisions.

Galton's theory of intelligence

Nature. NOT nurture. He theorized that genetics is the determining factor of our intelligence capacity. His studies ended up showing stronger evidence for NURTURE, but he still held to his belief that nature, more specifically genetics was a greater determining factor. He was a proponent of eugenics!


General intelligence. That all forms of intelligence spring from general bedrock intelligence.


Theory of multiple (8) intelligences. From Visual-spatial to artistic, to the two most commonly embraced in western culture, Linguistic and Logical/mathematical. His idea was that wester IQ tests were not sufficient in determining one's level of intelligence.


First developed intelligence scale. What is most commonly used as IQ test today gave a measure of mental age vs chronological age. Measured as Mental age/chronological age x 100.

Frequency of Consciousness as measured on EEG

Alpha>Beta>Theta>DeltaAlpha is relaxed, meditativeBeta is awake and alertTheta is Lightly sleepingDelta is deep sleep.

Which part of the brain controls alertness?

The reticular formation of the brain stem signals to prefrontal cortex which maintains alertness. Loss of function in this area results in coma.

Melatonin is released by the ____ in response to ____

Pineal gland, Decreasing levels of light.

Stages of sleep and their waves..

1- Falling asleep- Alpha and Theta2- Deeper sleep- Theta waves with Kcomplexs and spindles3- Transitional- Mostly theta, D begin to appear4- Deep sleep- DELTA

Paradoxical Sleep

Brain waves are almost that of alertness, yet the muscles remain paralyzed.


An chronic neurological disorder caused by the autoimmune attack of neurons that release hypocretin, a hormone that normally regulates sleep wake cycles. Patients reach REM sleep after only 5 min compared to 90 min of normal adults. Also experience cataplexy where they experience temporary paralysis while remaining conscious and alert.


Trouble getting to sleep, staying asleep, or avoiding sleep.

Parasomnias-Examples include

Abnormal movements, emotions, perceptions etc. during sleep. Sommambulism- Sleep walkingNight terrors- Occur during first few hours of stages 3-4 non REM sleep. Thrashing, screaming, hyperstimulation of sympathetic NS.

horizontal cells

Cells attached to cones and rods that release GABA and thus inhibit various receptor cells helping the eyes to adjust to light and darkness.

Superordinate link

Connect a thing to its category. Cat= mammal. Carrot= vegetable

It is easier to confirm a dog as a mammal than an aardvark. This is because of the...

Familiarity effect.

A study is conducted where symptoms of patients are observed who have an unknown exposure. The researchers view symptoms in an attempt to find the cause . This is a____ Study

Case control study

You can't find your car because of previous memories of parking it elsewhere. "I always park under this tree! where is it?

Proactive interference- memories of the past interfere with making new memories

You eat yogurt every but can't remember whether you had nuts in your yogurt on Monday. Your new memories are thus interfering with old memories.

Retroactive interference.

Psychoanalytic theory

Freud's theory concerning dreams. That they are representations of our unconscious desires, thoughts and motivations.

Cognitive theory of dreams

That dreams are visualizations of our thoughts and perceptions of self, others, the world, morals, conflict.

Information Processing theory

That dreams are the consolidation of information received throughout the day.

Activation-synthesis theory

That dreams are due to random activation of the limbic system which mimics incoming stimuli. Dreams are the cerebral cortex attempting to interpret this stimulus.


Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions such as Alcohol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines


Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.


mescaline, hashish, marijuana, peyote, psilocybin- Drugs that cause halucinations

Pain Killers

opiates, opoids. Kill pain by blocking action potential


Can be classified under many drug types.

AlcoholWhy does it cause loss of sensation?

Depressant best known for its ability to agonize GABA neurotransmitters. GABA neurotransmitters bind to receptors that allow Cl- ions to enter the neuron. Resting membrane potential is thus hyperpolarized to a level below normal RMP (-70mV). In order for depolarization to occur, depolarization stimulus must be larger in magnitude.


Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes


Stimulant associated with high levels of energy and euphoria. Agonist to monoamine neurotransmitters of which Dopamine gets the most attention (hence the euphoria)


Agonist to Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine which relaxes and produces feelings of ecstasy. AGONIST TO ALMOST ALL MONOAMINES (besides epinephrine)

nativist theory

The view that language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity.

How language is made from the bottom up...

Phenome (P') -> Morpheme (Park) -> Syntax (parks are fun) words become sentences. Semantics- sentences have meaning.

Learning theory of language

imitate what they hear and are reinforced when they use proper grammer and corrected when they are wrong

Interactionist theory

Language acquisition is based both on learner's innate abilities and on opportunities to engage in conversations. Language development happens when the environment interacts with the child's innate capacity. (Vygotsky)

Arcuate Fasciculus

A bundle of axons through which Broca's and Vernicke's area communicate.

EMOTION: the three components of emotion..

Subjective experience- The individual's subjective interpretation of the experience.Physiological Experience- The physiological response to various emotions.Behavioral response- Facial expressions and body language that accompany various emotions

James Lange theory

Physiological response occurs causing an emotional response.

Cannon-Bard theory

Physiological and emotional response occur simultaneously

Schacter-singer theory

theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal. Physiological is cognitively interpreted in its CONTEXT which leads to emotion. Ex: You run into your crush, your SNS is activated, but you do not interpret the situation as dangerous because of the context.

Explicit v implicit memory of emotion

Explicit- The conscious memory of having experienced that emotion.Implicit- The actual unconscious encoding and storage of the feeling.


Connects hippocampus to hypothalamus

septal nuclei

Pleasure center, reward

corpus callosum

A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.



Primary appraisal and Secondary

Individual will judge a potential threat as irrelevant, good, or stressful (bad)If judged as stressful, the individual will decipher how to cope with threat. This is the secondary appraisal

Stimulation of SNS will do what to glucose production?

Increase! This allows the cells to receive sufficient energy supply for fight or flight response.

Arousal theory of behavior

People cater their lives to experience the most stimulation. When hyperstimulated, they tend to seek more relaxing activities.

Reticular activating system

Responsable for arousal

Drive Reduction Theory of BehaviorPrimary v Secondary Drive

We behave in a way that eliminates the negative internal emotions. Primary drive- drive associated with survivalSecondary drive- Drive tied to primary drive indirectly.

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

Physiological- sex. foodSafety- Security! of body, of health, of employmentLove/belonging- sexual intimacy, friendship, familyEsteem- Self esteem, respect of and by othersSelf actualization- top of triangle- Creativity, spontanaeity

ERG theory of needs- How is it different than Maslow's hierarchy?

Existence- Physio + SafetyRelatedness- Belonging+ Esteem Growth- Esteem + Self actualizationIt's not in any particular order of need. One group can have an influence on another and vise versa.

Self Determination Theory

Autonomy-In control of one's own lifeCompetence- Capable of accomplishing tasksRelatedness- being accepted in social settings

Incentive Theory of Behavior

Behavior is determined by a desire to obtain reward and avoid punishment.

Cognitive Theory of Behavior

Behavior is determined by thoughts, plans, goals, expectations.

Expectancy-Value Theory of behavior

A persons behavior is motivated both by his/her expectation of success, and perception of the value of the rewards associated with the behavior.

Opponent-Process Theory- How could this lead to addictive behavior?

Homeostatic response to things. By taking heroin, the body experiences a physiological and emotional shift, (euphoria, anti-diarrhea, analgesic effects). The more we expose the body to substance, the more the body builds an expectation or prepares itself for that substance. As the body expects heroin to come on board, it mounts OPPONENT PROCESSES which elicit the opposite effects of Heroin (diarrhea, pain sensitivity, Dysphoria) to prepare the body for Heroin to bring it back to normal state. This process becomes larger and larger, leading to an increasingly strong addiction. If the body does not receive heroin, the user must cope with the withdrawal symptoms (opponent processes).

Role-playing effects on attitude- Which study is an example of this?

A person playing a role is most likely to adopt attitudes that fit the part.Zimbardo Prison study- Students assigned roles as prison guards and prisoners. The effects were so real that the study was concluded on ethical grounds.

Someone asks you to sign a petition that people should drive safely in residential areas. You sign it, of course, but then they ask if you would be willing to put an ugly "slow" sign in your front yard. You accept in order to avoid_____.

Cognitive dissonance- The uneasy feeling of our beliefs do are not aligned with our actions. " Well now that I have claimed to support neighborhood safety, I would feel awkward not proving it by placing the sign in my yard.

Elaboration-Likelihood model of Attitude change...Central and peripheral route

Usually refers to one person trying to change the attitude of another on a certain issue. Central route- Most effective- Involves thoughtful consideration of the issue at hand and presentation of data/information. Persuading the person to have x attitude.Peripheral- For people who are more indifferent on the issue. A persuader's "reliability", regardless of the issue, will have an effect on changing the attitude of that person, However, the effect is shorter lasting than that of central route.

Social Cognitive Theory of Attitude

Attitude can be changed by the observation of the individual who will then MODEL what he observes. HOWEVER this includes the environment, and other personal factors.

According to the Characteristics model of attitude change, who is the most likely to be persuaded? Who are the least likely?

A target with moderate self-esteem. A target with high intelligence is least likely to be persuaded to something, especially if that something lacks depth, or is one-sided.Those with high/low self esteem have emotions that interfere with attitude change.

Using a celebrity to endorse a political issue is an example of _____.

The peripheral route of the Elaboration-Likelihood model of Attitude change.

If no one paid taxes, society would fall apart and lose its order. Not paying taxes is wrong.This is an example of _______ morality

Conventional- Morality based on conformity, law and order.

I pay taxes so that I can qualify for tax refunds. I also might go to jail.This is an example of ____ morality.

Preconventional- Morality based on obedience and self interest. SAY PLEASE= get cookie

I pay my taxes so that the government can protect and secure individual rights. This is an example of ______ Morality

Post-conventional- Morality based on social contract and universal human ethics.

Based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a 1-3 year old may face what conflict? With what possible consequences?

Autonomy vs. shame- He can succeed and feel self-efficacy, or fail and experience self doubt.

Based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a 3-6 year old may face what conflict? With what possible consequences?

Initiative vs. guilt- Success brings purpose and motivation, failure brings guilt and inadequacy

Based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a 6-12 year old may face what conflict? With what possible consequences?

Industry v inferiority- Success: competence. Failure- inferiority.

Based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a 12-19 year old may face what conflict? With what possible consequences?

Identity v role confusion- Success: uniqueness. Failure: role confusion.

Based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a 19-25 year old may face what conflict? With what possible consequences?

Intimacy v Loneliness- Success: Intimate relationships. Failure: loneliness

Based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a 26-64 year old may face what conflict? With what possible consequences?

Generativity v stagnation- Success: contribution to society, failure: no contribution

Based on Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a 64+ year old may face what conflict? With what possible consequences?

Integrity vs. despair- Success: wisdom and integrity, failure: dissatisfaction with life.

People tend to increase the status of the group to which they belong (in-group), and decrease the status of the group to which they do not (out-group). This is according to the _____ theory.

Social Identity

Looking glass self

My self concept is largely determined by how I believe others see me. It is called looking glass referring to a mirror. In the mirror, I see not the actual self, but the reverse self. This perhaps suggests that the looking glass view of self is not an accurate one.

Who is most likely to experience cognitive dissonance?

Someone who is not an expert in the field of discussion. Ex: A physics student, when told he is wrong, will experience the discomfort of ideas that conflict with his belief. A physics professor whose method is challenged by a student, is less likely to doubt his methods.

External validity

Extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings

Internal validity

A measure of the trustworthiness of a sample of data. Internal validity looks at the subject, testing, and environment in which the data collection took place.

Reliability vs Validity

Reliability is a measure of the consistency of a tool's measurement.Ex: The foot strength sensor measures a consistent 100N force whenever we put the weight on it.Validity is a measure of how well the test measures what it is purported to measure. Ex: The foot strength sensor should measure 100N for a 10kg weight because 10kg under 10m/s^2 gravity= 100N

As we reach old age, our brain becomes ______ in size and _____ plastic.

Smaller, Less.

Skin conductivity increases in ______ nervous system activity.

Sympathetic... This is the technique used in traditional lie-detector tests, as anxiety (caused by lying) will generally increase skin conductivity.


A status is ACHIEVED by an individual. Your value is thus decided in society.

Integration vs segregation


Social Reproduction

One generation will adopt its status from prior generation.

Social mobility

That an individual can move through social classes or change social status.

Cerebral cortex function

Executive functions, complex perception and cognition.

Thalamus Function

Consciousness, relay between subcortical areas and cerebrum.

Hypothalamus function

Hunger, thirst, emotion (through hormonal release to pituitary gland)

Limbic System Function

Primary emotion center, and episodic memory.

Basal Ganglia function

Voluntary motor control, procedural memory.

The forebrain is also known as the ______ and contains which structures?

Proencephalon. cerebral cortex, the thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic system.

The midbrain is also known as the ______ and contains which structures? What functions do each of those structures perform?

MesencephalonSuperior and inferior colliculi.Superior does visual motor reflexesInferior colliculi is the auditory center and hearing reflexes.

The Hindbrain is also known as the _____ and contains which structures? What are the functions of those structures?

Rhombencephalon.Medulla Oblongata- Breathing, heart rate, digestionPons- Sensory and motor tracks between the medulla and the cortexCerebellum- Balance and refined motor movements.Reticular Formation- States of consciousness (sleep.wake)

Proencephalon divides into ______ and _______Rhombencephalon?

Telencephalon and DiencephalonMyelencephalon and metencephalon

Pituitary Gland is derived from which embryological layer?

Diencephalon from the proencephalon. Also know it is ectodermal.

My dominant hemisphere is the _____

Left. Because I'm right handed.

Acetylcholine is found int the ___ of the body and its deficiency is often associated with ______ disease.

CNS and PNS!Alzheimer's

Where is epinephrine found in the body? Norepinephrine?

Epinephrine is mainly found in the PNS. NE is in both CNS and PNS.

What difficulties are associated with NE deficiency?

NE is located in part in the CNS and contributes to arousal and attention. Low NE in the CNS is often associated with anxiety and depression.

Where is dopamine found and what are its effects? What are effects of Dopamine deficiency?

Dopamine is found in the CNS and is responsible for Reward processing and sensorimotor integration. Abnormal D levels are associated with Parkinson's, Tourette's, Huntington's and Schizophrenia.

Compare neurotransmitters with Neuropeptides

Neurotrans are fast and short-lived. Neuropeptides like endorphins are slow and long-lived.

NATURE V NURTURE: If environment is controlled and genetic differences cause a result ______ prevails. If genes are controlled and a change in environment causes a result, ______ prevails.


Study monozygotic twins in ______ homes so that genetic influence is ______ and environmental influence is _____


How would adoption be used in a Nature v Nurture study?

If an adopted child has a character trait that is more similar to his adopted than his real parents, we can assume that it is NURTURE. Otherwise it would be nature or substantial heritability.

The biopsychosocial Approach to understanding psychological disorders :

It is both biomedical (hormones, genetics, etc.) and social. In other words, it is both Nature and nurture that influence psychological behavior.

GAD stands for ____ and refers to ...

Generalized Anxiety Disorder.Prolonged and exaggerated sense of worry that has few or no verifiable causes.

SAD stands for ____ and refers to ...

Social Anxiety DisorderAn overwhelming feeling of anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations. May be accompanied by blushing, nausea, excessive sweating, difficulty speaking.


A persistant fear of a place or circumstance from which escape might be difficult.

DID stands for ___ and refers to...

Dissociative Identity Disorder- Kinda like split personality. A disruption of identity with more than 2 personalities. Amnesia of important events and personal experiences.


Obsessive compulsive disorder must had obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are unwanted thoughts that pester the mind of the individual, and compulsions are actions taken to resolve the obsessions.

A person with distorted patterns of thought also claims to predict the future and read your mind. He probably has ____

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

A person with Disruptive thought patterns feels that he is constantly being lied to or cheated with no logical explanation for such an assumption. He likely has ____

Paranoid Personality Disorder.

Cameron seems as though he has zero interest in participating in games. When complemented he seems disinterested and aloof. Cameron is likely suffering from _______

Schizoid personality disorder

Bill seems to lack emotional concern for others and lights squirrels on fire. He likely suffers from ________. If he advances in social apathy and has a severe conscience deficit he would likely be called a _______. If he has a total lack of concern for others, he would be called a ______.

Antisocial Personality DisorderSociopathPsychopath

Borderline Personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures

Olivia is constantly causing a scene at parties and often publicizes her shallow emotions. She may even threaten suicide to manipulate others to side with her. She likely suffers from ______

Histrionic Personality Disorder

Whats the difference between OCD and OCPD?

Someone with OCD experiences unwelcomed and uncontrolled thoughts or obsessions and performs actions that they believe will help to reduce stress whereas someone with OCPD actually sees their way of demanding order and perfection as an efficient way to run things and is thus much less likely to seek professional help.

What is the difference between Somatic Symptom Disorder and Illness Anxiety Disorder?

Originally they were both coined as "hypochondriasis", but now SSD are known to actually have symptoms about which they form irrational fears, whereas IAD patients have no symptoms, but form irrational fears about the potential of becoming ill.

Jim is so anxious about his Baptism that he actually begins to feel numbness in his feet. He is likely suffering from ________

Conversion Disorder.

The following are associated with which neurotransmitters?Parkinson's DiseaseSchizophreniaBipolar DisorderDepression

1. Parkinsons is associated with a decrease of Dopamine production and subsequent stimulation of the motor cortex. Schizophrenia is associated with increased dopamine levels in the brain.Bipolar Disorder is associated with increased monoamine levels in the brain (dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, NE)Depression is associated with decreased levels of monoamines in the brain.

Name the most common monoamines.

Serotonin, Dopamine, NE, Epinephrine

id ego superego

Id(it) pleasure. Ego (I) mediator. Superego(conscience) rules and regulations

What are the primary response and wish fulfillment?

The primary response is how the id responds (memory of the item of unconscious desire) to repressed desires. The Ego and Superego work to suppress the id that seeks instant gratification, and the id is relieved as it is gratified in dreams.

Define the following Defense MechanismsSublimation:Reaction formation:Projection:Displacement:

Channeling unconscious feelings into something manageable like laughter.Behaving in contradiction to your feelingsProjecting your own feelings or weakness on someone as though they were theirs.Channeling anger or some emotion into someone who was uninvolved in the cause.

Personal v collective conscious. Who made this distinction and what do each refer to?

Carl Jung. Essentially, personal conscious refers to parts of our conscious that are unknown to us but revealed to us in our dreams. This is similar to Freud's "unconscious".Collective consciousness refers to the universal consciousness that spans through mankind and history. Personal consciousness is responsible for our individuality and creativity.

How did Freud and Jung view behavior?

Freud- Everything we do is caused by repressed desires from our childhood.Jung- Caused by our past experiences and future aspirations.

What are the major differences between Freud and Jung?

libido- jung generalized psychic energy, not just sexualego- jung says ego only goes to conscious, not precon., conscious and subcon.behavior- freud repressed childhood desires. jung- past experience and future aspiration.

Which ideal reflects that humans are inherently good?


One doctor feels that one's neuroses define his condition while another believes that a person is more than the sum of their neuroses, and observes how healthy individuals strive toward self realization. The former has a _____ view and the latter a _____ view.


Cardinal v Secondary v Central traits: Who came up with these and what are they?

Gordon AllportCardinal- What you are known for, your reputation based off of actions . Ghandi is the "peace-maker"Secondary- I'm not usually anxious unless i'm trapped in a small space- Trait applied in only one circumstance.Central- Sally is impatient wherever she goes and in any circumstance.


An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.

The belief that the individual, their behavior, and their environment all effect each other mutually, NOT just the environment, is called __________.

Reciprocal Determinism

Behaviorists like Skinner would most likely encourage _______ conditioning in response to poor behavior instead of focusing on an underlying cause of that behavior.

Operant. This is to reinforce positive behaviors.

operant vs classical conditioning

operant has reinforcements and classical is the response to a stimulus

Skinner's (behaviorist) theory on how personality is developed.

Personality is merely the sum of a subjects behaviors that have been reinforced over time.

What is a token economy?

A system where individuals are given tokens for positive behavior that they can later exchange for goods and prizes.

Social Cognitive theory v. behaviorism: A psychologist recommends that a parent change his habits so that his child will change his habits as well. He is using a ______ approach which pertaints to _______ , while the other pertains to ______ _______.

Behaviorist. HABITSKnowledge Acquisition.

Self-perception theory states that our actions ....

Determine attitude because people tend to infer their own attitudes based on their behavior?


My value


My appearance


My Idea of who I am


Who I am

A car salesman buys a car for 10k, lists for sale at 30k and offers to sell it for 25k. He is using a _______

Anchoring heuristic.

How do gamblers use cognitive bias?

They assume that if they've had bad luck on the first few pulls, they are destined to have good luck on a future pull. This is an error in reasoning because of the law of large numbers.

SSRI stands for.... and is used for...

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. These are a class of drugs used for depression that act to inhibit serotonin from reentering the presynaptic neuron. Those who deal with depression are often serotonin deficient, and SSRI's allow serotonin to remain in the synaptic cleft and continue binding to their receptors.