chapter 12 key issue 1 and 2


any activity that fufills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it

what sector of the economy do services fall under



a permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services

what distribution must services follow

market proximity

consumer services

provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can pay for them

examples of consumer services

retail education health leisure

buisness services

facilitate the activities of other buisnesses

examples of buisness services

financial services professional services transportation services

public services

provide security and protection for citizens and buisnesses

examples of public services

most public service jobs are in local government

explain how the service sector contributed to the 2008 recession

Triggered the 2008 recessiondue to mistakes in the practices of financial services and real estate services

what does central place theory seek to explain

how the most profitable location can be identified

what is a central place

a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted to the surrounding area

what is a market area

the area surrounding a service from which consumers are attracted

what other term is sometimes used to refer to a market area?


what shape does central place theory NOW hypothesize for market areas?

hexahons, circle rectangle hybrid

range defenition

maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service

threshold defenition

minimum number of people needed to support the service

small settlements have services with --- thresholds, ranges, and market areas


small neighborhoods within larger settlements must also do what?

provide services with small thresholds/ ranges

describe the nesting pattern that occurs with settlements of various sizes:

when there are many small settlements and some large settlements there are bound to be an overlap of services

who originally made the study in central place theory

Walter Christaller

where did Christaller do his study?

southern Germany

Who documented the central place phenomenon in the US? where?

Brian Berry, U.S. midwest

most MDCs follow the pattern of ---


second city is less than half the size of the main city, the main city is a ---

Primate City

mexico --- follow the rank-size model

does NOT

how does the absence of rank-size-rule distribution affect the citizens of a country?

indicates uneven distribution of wealth

according to geographers, where is the best location for a service (once range and threshold have justified its viability)?

proximity to consumers-- directly related to the number of people in an area

the gravity model helps explain this as the optimal location is --- related to the number of people in the area and -- related to the distance they must travel

directly inversley

what two patterns are reflected by consumer behavior?

1. more people-- more potential customers 2. further someone is from a service, the less likely they are to use it

periodic market

collection of individual vendors who come together to offer goods and services in a location of specific days

example of periodic market

markets that move from day to day

what groups of people and areas are provided goods by periodic markets

residents of developed countries, as well as rural areas in developed countries

fastest growing consumer service is...?

health care

fastest growing buisness service is..?


what does central place theory helps determine..

the most profittable location for a consumer service

a central place is surrounded by a market that has a

range and a threshold

patterns of consumer service distribution can typially be most easily tracked in..