General Neoplasia

angiogenic factors

FGF: fibroblast growth factor
VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor
PDGF: platelet derived growth factor
HIF1-alpha: Hypoxia-inducible growth factor 1-alpha

Name the mechanism for each step of CA invasion:
1. detachment of tumor cells
2. ECM degradation
3. ECM attachment
4. ECM movement

1. reduced Cadherins
2. collagenase & cathepsin B
3. laninin R's & integrins
4. autocrine motility factors

4 mechanisms against tumors

1. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (main)
2. NK cells: direct or ADCC
3. macrophage (TNF/free radicals)
4. humoral destruction via complement

What is the tumor grade?

level of differentiation
anaplasia = no differentiation

What is the tumor stage?

extent of spread. based on:
1. T(umor): sized of tumor
2. N(odes): spread to lymph
3. M(etastasis): presence/absence metastasis

What tumor is an exception to the rule that benign tumors stay benign?

Familial adenomatous polyposis (APC)

What cancer does xeroderma pigmentosa lead to?

squamous cell carcinoma

ataxia telengiectesia


Fanconi's anemia


liver cirrhosis

hepatocellular carcinoma: HCC

Ulcerative colitis

colonic adenocarcinoma

direct vs indirect chemical carcinogens?

direct is a weak carcinogen that is dose and time dependent.
indirect requires metabolic activation by the liver before it's toxic

cancers that result from the following chemicals:
1. cyclophosphamide
2. tobacco
3. aromatic amines & azodyes
4. nitrosamines (nitrates) & amides
5. asbestos

1. leukemia
2. lung cancer
3. HCC & bladder cancer
4. gastric CA
5. mesothelioma & lung CA

2 cancers caused by HPV?

papilloma (skin/larynx)
cervical cancer

2 cancers caused by EBV?

nasopharyngeal carcinoma
burkitt's lymphoma

cancer caused by HHV-8?

Kaposi's sarcoma

HPV & EBV are what types of viruses?

DNA viruses

What is special about RNA viruses?

They have reverse transcriptase. it'll make the DNA which then can get incorporated into the host genome

What's the only RNA virus found to cause human cancer?
What 2 cancers does it cause?

T cell leukemia

2 signal transduction oncoproteins?


2 nuclear regulatory factor oncoproteins?


1 cyclin oncoprotein?

CCND1 (cyclin D1)
causes mantle cell lymphoma