Public Admin AJB Classics

Woodrow Wilson (1887)

The Study of Administration" (1887)
Called for science of administration. Promoted the end of spoils and a move to a responsive civil service based on merit.
� Follows Pendleton Act which says we need to end the age of the Spoils and move to merit based

William Willoughby (1918)

The Movement for Budgetary Reform in the States (1918)
Budgeting as a tool of democracy and a focus of public administration study. Promotes budgeting as a way to make parties accountable
� Believes that budgets are a major instrument of public administra

Max Weber (1922)

Bureaucracy (1922)
Ideal type bureaucracy. 3 types of social leaders- charismatic, traditional, legal rational. Legal rational is most stable
Bureaucracy refers to the management of large organizations characterized by hierarchy, fixed rules, impersonal r

Mary Parker Follett (1926)

The Giving of Orders" (1926)
Critical of micromanagement. Advised that managers should use power with, not power over.
� Power with rather than power over
� Orders should be dictated by the situation
� Situations evolve with circular not linear method

Leonard D. White (1926)

Introduction to the study of public administration" (1926)
First PA textbook. Works to establish PA as unique discipline
� Defines public administration is the management of men and materials in the accomplishment of the purposes of the state
� PA relate

Jane Addams (1904)

Problems of Municipal Administration (1904)
Critical of top-down government. Focus on local governments
� Critical of the founders vision of American government
� Top-down style is not addressing issues going on in America
� Says that urban areas are the

Frederick Taylor (1912)

Scientific Management (1912)
Father of scientific management. Time and motion studies. Maximizing efficiency.
Taylor states that there are four key elements of scientific management.
� First, scientific methods should replace all rule-of-thumb
� Second, t

Frank Goodnow (1900)

Politics and Administration (1900)
Established politics-administration dichotomy
� 2 functions of government- politics and administration
� Politics has to do with the guiding or influencing of governmental policy
� Administration has to do with the execu

Abraham Maslow (1943)

The Theory of Human Motivation (1943)
Hierarchy of Needs. It isn't all about making workers efficient, they have bigger, more important needs that must be met.
� Discusses hierarchy of needs in order of need
o Physiological (food, health)
o Safety
o Love/

Brownlow Commission (1937)

Report of the President's Committee on Administrative Management (1937)
Brownlow committee (Brownlow, Merriam, Gulick); expansion of the executive.
� Hamiltonian argument- time of big government- New Deal
� Business model- we need to coordinate through th

Charles Lindblom (1959)

The Science of Muddling Through (1959)
Incrementalism, Path Dependency
� Incremental decisionmaking
� Relationship between means and ends
� We are not making decisions in a vacuum
� Path dependency
� We aren't going to overturn the whole system in a day

Chester Barnard (1938)

Informal Organizations and Their Relation to Formal Organizations (1938)
Must remember the human element of work. Workers are not machines and worker relationships (informal organizations) shape formal organizations.
� Informal organizations, particularly

Douglas McGregor

The Human Side of Enterprise (1957)
Theory X and theory Y Workers
Theory X worker: inherently dislikes work and will try to avoid it; must be coerced, controlled and threatened with punishment in order to put forth adequate effort; prefers to be directed,

Dwight Waldo (1948)

The Administrative State (1948)
"Efficiency for what"; PA involves many other fields that can't be ignored; One grand theory is not realistic
� "Efficiency for what"
� Disputes the orthodoxy and Gulick's POSDCORB
� Administrators need to be trained in pol

Herbert Simon (1946)

The Proverbs of Administration (1946)
Bounded rationality; fact-value dichotomy; believed PA theory should be testable
� Administrative theory to date is based on proverbs, which are contradictory that cannot be tested
� Need theory that can be evaluated

Hoover Commission (1949)

The Report of the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch (1949)
Reorganized the executive branch into cohesive departments, increasing management capacity
� The President needed a bigger staff
� Strength and unity in the executive facilitate b

Luther Gulick (1937)

Notes on the Theory of Organization (1937)
POSDCORB; combination of top-down, bottom-up approaches.
� Discusses Benefits (employee expertise) and limit of division of work (some work is not naturally dividable)
� Importance of unity of command
� Focus on

Paul Appleby (1945)

Government is Different (1945)
Says that public sector employees are distinctly different from private sector employees; Lays groundwork for PSM research
� Government employees are distinctly different from non-government employees (built on by Graham All

Philip Selznick (1949)

The Cooptative Mechanism (1949)
Organizational coopatation to ensure stability and eliminate competition
Discusses the process of cooptation
� Cooptation is the process of absorbing new elements into the leadership or policy determining structure of an or

Robert Merton (1940)

Bureaucratic Structure and Personality (1940)
Argues that Weberian view of bureaucracy does not take into account human element.
� Provides a counterpoint to each of the "positives" deemed from the bureaucratic structure
o States that bureaucrats can be i

V.O. Key (1940)

The Lack of Budgetary Theory (1940)
Argues for distinct public budgetary theory
� Argues that we need a distinct budgeting theory for public institutions
� Budgeting is an important thing that has major political consequences
� People that manage budget m

Aaron Wildavsky (1969)

Rescuing Policy Analysis from PPBS (1969)
Budgeting is incremental and highly influenced by policy. The shotgun marriage between policy analysis and budgeting should be annulled.
� Says the military example using PPBS is unique and does not apply to domes

Alice Rivlin (1971)

Systematic Thinking for Social Action (1971)
Careful decentralizing. Need better performance measures to understand impact of decentralization.
� Comes in time of social unrest and anger at government around Vietnam war
� Says that calls for decentralizat

Allen Schick (1966)

The Road to PPB : The Stages of Budget Reform (1966)
Planned Programming Budgeting Systems. Use of PPBS as tool for change and future development.
� A budget is a reflection of our values
� Rejects incremental style of budgeting- says budgeting can be a t

Anthony Downs (1967)

The Life Cycle of Bureaus (1967)
Describes how organizations' life cycles operates
� Bureaus are generated in four ways
o Routinization of charisma
o Created out of nothing to carry out a specific function for which they perceive a need
o Split off from e

Charles Levine (1978)

Organizational Decline and Cutback Management (1978)
Said organizations in decline must use different management strategies to cope with scarce resources. Builds on Anthony Downs' life cycle ideas.

Daniel Katz and Robert Kahn (1966)

Organization and the System Concept (1966)
Open systems theory; input output system. Bottom line- it is not all about internal structure, goals and tasks- outside environment and adapting to feedback are essential too
� Promoted idea of organizations as e

Deil Wright

Intergovernmental Relations: An analytical overview (1974)
IGR; Picket fence federalism. Cross-organizational thinking.
Five distinctive features of intergovernmental relations
� National
� States
� Counties
� Municipalities
� Special Districts

Frederick Mosher & Others (1974)

Watergate: Implications for Responsible Government (1974)
Need to bring ethics back into the public sector
� Said public sector employees needed to be trained in ethics
� Who do you serve? Normative framework
� Need to end the patronage- Jacksonian

George Fredrickson (1971)

Toward a New Public Administration (1971)
New Public Administration. Focus on social equity, representativeness, politically neutral competence, and executive leadership.
� Comes out of Minnowbrook Conference
� Quotes Herbert Kaufman who describes NPA: "r

Herbert Kaufman (1969)

Administration Decentralization and Political Power (1969)
Argues adverse effects of government decentralzation.
� He accepted that decentralization could provide for greater local influence in public policy making
o Criticism of bureaucratic hierarchical

Jeffrey Pressman & Aaron Wildavsky (1973)

Implementation (1973)
Oakland study. First implementation research.
� Claim to be first (with Martha Derwick) to analyze implementation of policies
� Says that things can not work after everything seemingly went right
� Says the separation of policy desig

John Rohr (1989)

Ethics for Bureaucrats: An Essay on Law and Values (1989)
Commitment is to the Constitution. Bureaucrats need to follow Constitution

Martin Grodzins (1966)

The American System as a Single Mechanism" (1966)
Marble cake; multiple governments with overlapping functions
� Says most Americans pay taxes to 4+ government bodies
� Says "the multitude of governments does not mask any simplicity of activity. There is

Martin Landau (1969)*

Redundancy, Rationality, and the Problem of Duplication and Overlap (1969)
Government overlap and duplication is good
� Overlap and duplication is necessary
o It guards against failures that would have adverse consequences
o Though it is inefficient- inef

Samuel Krislov (1974)

Representative Bureaucracy (1974)
Representative bureaucracy- in order for government to be legitimate it has to be representative of the people (passive
� Administrators should look like the general population (passive representation)
� How do we go abou

Theodore Lowi (1979)

The End of Liberalism: The Indictment (1979)
Denounces interest group liberalism
� Argued that public authority was parceled out to private interest groups and resulted in a weak decentralized government incapable of long-range planning
� Interest groups

Warren Bennis (1967)

Organizations of the Future (1967)
Failure of bureaucracy; new systems
� Believes bureaucracy will fail in the 20th century due to 5 problems
o Integration- how to integrate individual needs and organizational goals
o Social influence- problem of distribu

Yehezkel Dror (1967)

Policy Analysts: A New Professional Role in Government Service (1967)
Economics is not the sole answer; policy analysis is multi-disciplinary
� Warns of dangers of solely using economics approach in public decision-making
� Advocates policy analysis over

Camilla Stivers

Toward a Feminist Perspective in Public Administration Theory (1990)
Developing feminist theory in public administration
o Four current areas in public administration theory where feminist though might be productively used
� the question of administrative

Carol Lewis (1992)

The Ethics Challenge in Public Service (1992)
Ethical challenges of the public servant;
Deciding which ethical rules to abide by
o Argues that public servants are torn by what methods to use to solve ethical problems
� Common sense may be used to solve ro

David Rosenbloom (1983)*

Public Administrative Theory and the Separation of Powers (1983)
Managerial, Political and Legal approaches to Public administration
� Managerial approach prioritizes efficency
o Led by Woodrow Wilson, Frederick Taylor
o Goodness was measured as relation

Dennis Thompson (1985)

The Possibility of Administrative Ethics (1985)
Initial arguments for administrative ethics existing
-Argued that an ethic of neutrality or an ethic of structure would make it impossible to have administrative ethics- but neither exist
� States that in or

Frederick Mosher (1982)

Democracy and the Public Service: The Collective Services (1982)
How democracy should be reflected in the civil service- worries that collective bargaining will make civil service less responsive to the public
� Mosher grapples with the idea of the civil

Graham Allison (1979)

Public and Private Management: Are They Fundamentally Alike in All Unimportant Respects (1979)
Details differences between private and public management
Areas of difference: Time Perspective, Duration, Measurement of Performance, Personnel Constraint, Qua

John Kingdon (1984)

How does an Idea's Time Come? Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies (1984)
Agenda setting and how agendas change over time; Three streams
o Two processes that affect agenda setting
� Participants who are active and the processes by which agenda items

Mark Moore (1995)

Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government (1995)
o Government is different
� politics is important
� market powers are different than the citizens

Martha Derthick (1987)

American Federalism: Madison's Middle Ground in the 1980s (1987)
Updates the state of federalism in the 1980s
Says national government has proven supreme but states have proven to be forces for decentralization
o Federalism is alive in the persistence of

Michael Barzelay & Babak Armajani (1992)

Breaking through Bureaucracy (1992)
Bureaucratic reform vision
o Shifting paradigms from the public interest to results citizens value
o "The concepts of mission, services, customers, and outcomes are valuable because they help public servants articulate

Michael Lipsky (1980)

Street-level Bureaucracy: The Critical Role of Street-Level Bureaucrats (1980)
Street-level bureaucrats are the face of government
� Street-level bureaucrats are the face of government to the people (seen through teachers, health workers, public defenders

Naomi Caiden (1981)

Public Budgeting Amidst Uncertainty and Instability (1981)
Budgeting reform, placing budgeting in a changing world, adjusting budgeting to changes in revenues and costs
� Budgeting strives on stability (which today we lack)
o Depends on accurate predictio

Ronald Moe (1987)

Exploring the Limits of Privatization (1987)
Says that momentum towards privatization is undeniable and is positive in many ways;
However, we must be aware of differences between public and private and issues that may arise with privatization
� Urge to pr

Roosevelt Thomas Jr.

From Affirmative Action to Affirming Diversity (1990)
Affirmative action needs to be reformed; minorities and women do not need boarding pass, they need upgrade
o Affirmative action sees the workplace as a pipeline where people get in and move up the ladd

Steven Ott

Understanding Organizational Culture (1989)
Argues for theory on organizational cultures
o Development of organization theory
� Defining organization theory
� Use definition to explain and predict organizational behavior
o Quantitative research cannot cap

The National Performance Review

From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government that Works Better and Costs Less (1993)
New Public Management; cutting red tape
Bureaucrats are good people trapped in bad systems
Red tape is strangling people
� Boiled down to four characteristics
o Cuttin

Christopher Hood (1991)

A Public Management for All Seasons? (1991)
Commentary on new public management- NPM is the solution to big inefficient government- Shows evolution of New Public Management (LOOK AT AGAIN)
o New public management as neo-Taylorism

Deborah Stone (2002)

Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making (2002)
Rationality project- 3 pillars of public policy rationale
o Attempts to justify why paradoxes seem to exist in political decision making
� Looks at examples of paradoxes:
� Republicans voting des

Guy Adams and Danny Balfour (2004)

Unmasking Administrative Evil: Searching for a Basis for Public Ethics (2004)
Creating a basis for public ethics
o Two versions of public ethics can be imagined
� The first is based on liberalism of fear- assume the worst from people- need monitoring
� De

Irene Rubin (2002)

Perennial Budget Reform Proposals: Budget Staff versus Elected Officials (2002)
Argues that political processes are interfering with technical workings of budgetary process- perennial budgets are prime example of the world of politics interfering with a r

Joseph Nye (2002)

Information Technology and Democratic Governance (2002)
Argues that technology will be the next revolution that will change the face of how we are governed
o Argues that technology will change face of government
� Unclear whether it will lead to more cent

Robert Agranoff (2006)

Inside Collaborative Networks: Ten Lessons for Public Managers (2006)
Set out to look at how networks and collaborative governance work in practice
Developed 10 lessons for network management based on case study analysis