Currently refers to naturally occurring substances derived from the opium poppy and their synthetic substitue
What are drugs referred to that have an association with opium?
Opioid (or opiate) narcotics
What has the term narcotic been incorrectly used for?
Many substances including marijuana and cocaine
Although opioid narcotics possess abuse potential....
they have important clinical value
The most common clinical use of opioid narcotics is as
analgesics to relieve pain
The opioid narcotics relieve pain by activating the same group of receptors that are controlled by endogenous substances, released in response to stress or pain
Activation of opioid receptors
The opioid narcotics relieve pain by activating the same group of receptors that are controlled by endogenous substances called endorphins , released in response to stress or pain
Opioid narcotics are CNS depressants
All the opioid narcotic agents that activate opioid receptors have abuse potential and are classified as scheduled drugs
with the first dose of a narcotic , although it does not become clinically evident until after 2 to 3 weeks of frequent use
What factors make an individual vulnerable to opioid abuse?
Family history of substance abuse issues (genetic vulnerability)
Dependence on nicotine, alcohol or sleeping pills
Use of psychiatric medications
Younger than 65 years of age
Heroin is classified as a Schedule I drug
Some of the recent increases in heroin use likely due to...
increased abuse of Rx opioid painkillers
Patients should be educated about potential abuse problems prior to being prescribed opioid drugs
If significant abuse is suspected, the prescribing clinician should discuss their concerns with the patient to find appropriate steps to stop abuse
Heroin has a bitter taste and is often cut with...
quinine which can be a deadly adulterant
Heroin plus the artifical narcotic ______ can be dangerous due to its unexpected potency
Heroin is frequently used with ____
Heroin combined with cocaine is called _____
how to do heroin...
Snorting the powder (nasal insufflation)
Injecting into muscle (intramuscular)
Mainlining (intravenous injection)
Amphetamine.... Synthetic chemical structure similar to natural neurotransmitters:
Norepinephrine, dopamine and epinephrine
Increase the release and block the metabolism
approved uses of amphetamines
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Side Effects of Therapeutic Doses
Abuse and addiction
Increased heart rate
Elevated blood pressure
Damage to blood vessels
Methods of Amphetamine Administration
Oral Ingestion (least efficient delivery method)
High doses of amphetamine...
can cause brain damage
Ecstasy enhances sensory input and....
has both stimulant and psychedelic effects
Ecstasy also releases...
both serotonin and dopamine and increases levels of oxytocin in the blood
It enhances sensory input and has both stimulant and psychedelic effects; it releases both serotonin and dopamine, and increases levels of oxytocin in the blood
Pharmacological Effects of Cocaine
Blocks the reuptake of these substances following their release from neurons
-Euphoria and positive feelings
- ups cardiovascular activity
-local anesthetic effect
What is the most frequently consumed stimulant in the world?
What is caffeine classified as?
what is the average daily intake of caffeine?
2-3 cups of coffee a day
What is the leading preventable cause of disease and premature death in the US?
Tobacco is the single largest cause of preventable death worldwide, and a risk factor of 75% of leading causes of death
WHO estimated that tobacco use kills 6 million people worldwide each year
In 2011, 68.2 million Americans what % of the population age 12+ reported current use of a tobacco product?
The amount of nicotine absorbed depends upon
The exact composition of the tobacco
How densely the tobacco is packed in the cigarette
Whether a filter is used & characteristics of the filter
The volume of smoke inhaled
The number of cigarettes smoked
Nicotine is a stimulant
But not the biggest problem per se
The inhalation of combusted materials, toxins and carcinogens is what is most harmful to tobacco smokers
Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancers of the lungs, bladder, pancreas, cervix, esophagus, stomach, oral cavity and kidney
There is NO conclusive evidence of reduced health risks associated with low-tar cigarettes
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are devices that deliver nicotine (or other substances) to users as a vapor
FDA has not fully evaluated e-cigarettes for effectiveness or safety
FDA only regulates e-cigarettes marketed for therapeutic purposes