How is an act of Parliamnet made?
Green Paper—>White Paper—>Bill—>First Reading—>Second Reading—>Committee Stage—>Report stage—>Third Reading—>Repeat—>Royal Assent
Explain the green paper
Consultation document where the interested parties are consulted
Explain the white paper
Firmer proposals about how the law will be reformed
Explain the bill
A draft of the Act
Explain the first reading
Formal procedure where the name and aim of the act is read out to the H of C
Explain the second reading
Main debate in the H of C, vote through two doors
Explain the committes stage
16-50 look at each clause of the Bill. They usually have knowledge in that area.
Explain the report stage
Committees will report back their scrutinies and amendments- voted on
Explain the third reading
Final vote- very unlikely to fail
Explain the H of L stage
The bill goes throough the stages again, amendments go back to the H of C
Explain Royal Assent
Queen approves the new law
What is a public Bill?
A proposed law that affects the public as a whole. It is the most common law. Introduced by a Government minister e.g health minister introduces a Bill about the NHS.
What is a Private Members Bill?
A private members bill in the Parliament of the UK is a type of public Bill that can be introduced by either members of the H of C or the H of L who are not ministers. Dont often become law. e.g David Steel proposed the Abortion Act 1967.
What is a Private Bill?
Usually promoted by organisations, like local authorities or private companies. Around 2 new private bills are promoted in a typical Parliamentry session. e.g National Rail could promote an Act that allows them to build more tracks. Can start in either house. Change the law for specific group.
What are the advantages of the legislative process?
1. Long process so gets checked a lot- fairer laws.2. Democratic process- Parliament is elected.3. HoL acts as a checking body and ensures the HoC is introducing clear and fair laws.4. Flexibility of law making due to different bills.
What are the disadvantages of the legislative process?
1. Can take a long time to pass laws- slow gov down or may be abandoned if new gov comes to power.2.Old acts exist, may use outdated and offensive language. Law is meant to be accessible.3. Not fully democratic- HoL is unelected