Parliamentry Law Making

How is an act of Parliamnet made?

Green Paper—>White Paper—>Bill—>First Reading—>Second Reading—>Committee Stage—>Report stage—>Third Reading—>Repeat—>Royal Assent

Explain the green paper

Consultation document where the interested parties are consulted

Explain the white paper

Firmer proposals about how the law will be reformed

Explain the bill

A draft of the Act

Explain the first reading

Formal procedure where the name and aim of the act is read out to the H of C

Explain the second reading

Main debate in the H of C, vote through two doors

Explain the committes stage

16-50 look at each clause of the Bill. They usually have knowledge in that area.

Explain the report stage

Committees will report back their scrutinies and amendments- voted on

Explain the third reading

Final vote- very unlikely to fail

Explain the H of L stage

The bill goes throough the stages again, amendments go back to the H of C

Explain Royal Assent

Queen approves the new law

What is a public Bill?

A proposed law that affects the public as a whole. It is the most common law. Introduced by a Government minister e.g health minister introduces a Bill about the NHS.

What is a Private Members Bill?

A private members bill in the Parliament of the UK is a type of public Bill that can be introduced by either members of the H of C or the H of L who are not ministers. Dont often become law. e.g David Steel proposed the Abortion Act 1967.

What is a Private Bill?

Usually promoted by organisations, like local authorities or private companies. Around 2 new private bills are promoted in a typical Parliamentry session. e.g National Rail could promote an Act that allows them to build more tracks. Can start in either house. Change the law for specific group.

What are the advantages of the legislative process?

1. Long process so gets checked a lot- fairer laws.2. Democratic process- Parliament is elected.3. HoL acts as a checking body and ensures the HoC is introducing clear and fair laws.4. Flexibility of law making due to different bills.

What are the disadvantages of the legislative process?

1. Can take a long time to pass laws- slow gov down or may be abandoned if new gov comes to power.2.Old acts exist, may use outdated and offensive language. Law is meant to be accessible.3. Not fully democratic- HoL is unelected