PSYC 471 Final

Broad Definition of IM

the natural propensity to engage one's interests and exercise one's capacities

Specific Definition of IM

doing a certain activity of one's own accord

Koestner Reading Example

Stopped reading when he was 40, then bought Harry Potter and got really into it - read the new books every year, made them last - finished the series at the beach


Children are very connected to books - very interested in themShowed home video of Sophie to show this -> pretends to be librarian named MarianneStory about Sophie where she lost something under the radiator and book with monkey finding something under a rock to communicate this

Rewards and Praise

Issue is that extrinsic and intrinsic motivation compete -> extrinsic motivation crowds out the intrinsic motivation

Kermie story

Sophie obsessed with reading books to win Kermie, but she was reading in a compulsive and rushed wayReading was about winning, not about enjoying the activityDamaging

Pizza Hut BOOK IT! Program

Gives free pizza, praise and recognition for reading accomplishmentsBased on the idea that giving rewards makes people like things more- ends up being damaging -> only gets kids to eat more pizza

Lepper et al (1973)

Method: free choice paradigm: control -> kids played on their own, reward -> given certificate - after FC period, kids have chance to draw again - results: rewards create trade off between quality and quantity - distorted the way you do the activity -> more pics, but of lesser quality Kids given reward only showed 50% intrinsic motivation the following week

Follow ups to Leper et al

Effect generalizes across cultures and reward typesBut effects are most powerful and most devastating with younger childrenAll kinds of contingent rewards have effect (engagement, completion, quality) - only non-contingent reward has no effect

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling

Harter's Research on the Impact of School on Children's Intrinsic Motivation

- linear drop in curiosity/interest over the school years- does not occur in Montessori schools - drop v drastic from elementary to middle school

Refinement of Harter's research; Lepper et al, 2005

Large, culturally diverse sampleExamined relations to school performanceFound that performance suffers as intrinsic motivation declines

Instructional practices that promote reading motivation (and comprehension)

Encouraging choiceProviding interesting, relevant textsFacilitating social interaction around booksUsing hands-on activities to spark interest

Allington et al, 2010

Addressing summer reading setback among economically disadvantaged elementary studentsThe summer slide 1000 1st graders assigned to book fair condition 500 in control group get puzzle books Dep. Variable = reading achievement 3 years later Result: significant positive effect of books, esp. for low SES "quality" of books did not matter! - reading about Britney Spears helped

How to regain intrinsic motivation

to regain intrinsic motivationLook for the spark of interestDon't judge yourself Try different formatsTrust that intrinsic motivation will lead to challenge

3 main methods to motivate children

- rewards- praise - competition


- has short term and long term effects - can destroy IM in the long run

Common functions of praise

create bondMotivateProtectManipulate

Koestner positive praise

Richard after Holy Child basketball game in 5th grade - coach signalled out Koestner, praised him

Koestner negative example of praise

Richard called before his 8th grade class - announced that Koestner was accepted to a good high school, felt embarrassed

Motivational Impact of Praise

Depends on how the praise is interpretedMediators: Type of relationship Type of praise Age, gender, cultural background Public nature

Praise as reinforcement requirements

- contingent - specific - credible

Brophy observational Studies (1981)

Found that only 5% of a teacher's communication could be classified as praise, while criticism accounted for 10% of their communicationFound that teachers often did not give praise in an effective wayFound no relationship between improvement and praiseConcluded that teachers were using praise in a haphazard, random useless way that was not producing results

Positive guidance

Generalized praise that creates positive atmosphereReflects, agreeable, harmless personalityDoesn't really enhance motivation in any way

Transition ritual

Praise indicates that one activity is done, that we are moving onAlso doesn't enhance motivation

Balance for criticism

Compliment sandwichContingency is not clearBetter to sandwich with empathy and give suggestions for future

Icebreaker or peace offering

For bullies/antagonistic kidsSends a message that things are ok, calm

Consolation prize or as encouragement

For slower kidsProblem is that it is being done publicly - can be embarrassing and demeaning

Vindication of predictions

Praise of self and of childFor kids who are smart but are lazy/distracted/oppositional

Attempted vicarious reinforcement

Role modelPraise as a way of sending a message to the rest of the class - trying to inspire others

Student-elicited stroking

Children who systematically reinforce the teachers to praise them moreMost commonProbably the most dangerous in the long-run - should worry about these children's IM

Spontaneous expression of surprise or admiration

Rarest type of praiseMost effectiveActually contingent, spontaneous and credible

Brophy's Conclusion

students do not actually need praise to master the curriculum, to acquire acceptable role behaviours or even to develop healthy self-concepts"Teacher praise is a weak reinforcer, especially after age 8/9 when kids get out of. The adult-pleasing mode

process praise

emphasizing children's effort, strategies or specific actions

person praise

indicates that the child had a fixed, positive quality

Dweck, 2018: Parent Praise to Toddlers Predicts Fourth Grade Academic Achievement via Children's Incremental Mindsets

Method: Parent praise sampled 90 min naturalistic observations in child's home at 14, 26 and 38 monthsResults: The way the mother praised the child was strongly related to malleable or fixed mindsets Process focused -> malleable Person focused -> fixedDweck recommends process-focused praise be given

How to give corrective feedback?

Joelle Carpentier on coach's "change-oriented feedback" - indicates behaviours that need to be modified so that athlete can achieve their goals Show empathy with the challenge Choice of solutions to correct problems Free from person-related statements Given in a considerate tone of voice End with empathy about the difficulty of changing ingrained habitsEmpathy-process-empathy sandwichShould ask the child how they think it went

Scanlon's (1992) Model of Sports Commitment

Commitment = desire and resolve -> function of 5 factors: sports enjoyment, involvement opportunities, personal investments, involvement alternatives, social contraints - adapted from relationships field

1. Sports Enjoyment


2. Involvement Opportunities


3. Personal Investments

- positive predictor, but can backfire

4. Involvement alternatives

negative predictor

5. social constraints


Koestner on Scanlon

argues that Scanlon is missing a factor - informal/formal: competition and its effects on our interest and liking and commitment to a sport

Deci (1981)

method: FCP, puzzles -> competition (beat other person) vs no competition (do your best), confederate taught to allow other person to lose results: participants in competition condition did not continue to play

Csikszentmihalyi, 1975: reasoning for playing basketball

Competition - measuring self vs othersDevelopment of personal skillsFriendshipsActivity itselfEnjoyment of experience/use of skillsMeasuring self against own idealsPrestige/glamour/rewardsEmotional release-> competition can be about challenge and measuring oneself -> a positive thing

Reeve and Deci (1996)

Method: FCP puzzles -> non-controlling (try to outperform, both win and lose) vs controlling (must win, do only win)results: only positive condition was non-controlling win

Implications of Study

winning a competition may not undermine IM if there is not undue pressure to win

Competition and Sportsmanship (Vallerand & Losier, 1994)

Method: Longitudinal study of Quebec midget elite AAA hockey platers at beginning and end of hockey seasonMeasures sportsmanship at each timeResults: competitive motivation at time 1 significantly reduced sportsmanship at time 2

So is it critical to teach competitive skills?

NO -> Too much practice competing, not enough collaboratinghigh social skills are more needed than competition skills - empathy, cooperativeness etc. Best combo = high math + high social skills

Characteristics of Singapore Schools:

More standardsMore homeworkMore emphasis on math and scienceLonger days and yearHigh stakes testing - pretty much every year At 12, take test that determines rest of lifeHighly value teaching as a profession

United states trying top down approach:

More standardsMore homeworkMore emphasis on math and scienceMore classes for giftedLonger days and yearUniformsMerit pay for teachersPay for students

Finland Currently

Age 7 school startSame teacher for 3 years - get to know students wellNo grades until grade 12 (still evaluated though)No gifted classesNo uniformsTeacher by first nameNo special prizes or awardsRecess every hou

hat can teachers do to help children maintain their intrinsic motivation?

Encourage cooperation: small groups working together to solve problemsSupport autonomy: self-directed learning, personal responsibility - message is why you should care about learning something

Johnson & Johnson (1999): established 3 goal structures in classrooms:

Competition: people attain their goals only if others do notCooperative: people attain their goals only when others od alsoIndividualism: people attain their goals without affecting the goal attainment of othersCooperation shown to be the best

Cooperation Associated with:

Greater intrinsic motivationGreater mastery of principles and conceptsGreater development of communication skillsBetter attitudes toward teachers and schoolsBetter attitudes toward classmates (including opposite sex and minorities)Higher self-esteem and mental health


taking perspective of the student and using student interest and input to guide teaching

Not Autonomy Support

Rewards (symbolic and tangible)PraiseThreatsCompetitionSurveillanceDeadlinesEvaluationImposed goals

Deci 1981 Field Study - Impact of Teacher Style

Method: arge sample of public schoolsMeasured teacher's regulatory style and student's intrinsic motivation in October and May using vignettes -> looked at correlation between teacher style and student motivationResults: IM higher throughout the year, same as cognitive competence and general self worth

Research on Benefits of Choice

Children's rating of a video game were much higher in personalization and choice conditionsAlso led to higher motivation and performanceEven when choices are trivial, the experience of being able to choose does something to us phenomenologically - makes us feel better

Sheena Iyengar

Published a study that showed that for some kids, the best possible condition is when someone tells them that their mom wants them to do a certain taskShe thinks that personal choice means something very different when you are from a culture that is more collectivistic

Iyengar & Lepper (1999)

Method: 4th-6th graders asked to work on anagram task (1/2 Anglo, 1/2 Asian), 3 conditions of choice: personal, experimenter, mom Results: Anglo American did best on personal, Asian American did best on mom

Iyengar and Lepper #2

Method: 10 year olds from Anglo or Asian American families play Space Quest Math Game, choices made in 3 ways: personal, ingroup, outgroupResults: Anglo liked personal choice best, Asian liked In-group choices best

Bao & Lamm (2009)

Method: Chinese 5th graders in Hong Kong assigned to personal choice or mother choice Results: For someone from collectivistic cultures, it is possible to feel like you are autonomous even when you are being guided by your parents

Arranged Marriages

End up reporting higher happiness over the long termBUT arranged marriages differ in how much autonomy is involved -> it is a continuum

forced marriage

no choice, mostly economic, quite rare

traditional arranged marriage

parents choose marital partner, you have option to veto particular choices

modern arranged marriages

parents are heavily involved in finding a selection of possible partners - possible to feel fully autonomous

modern arranged marriage with courtship

prospective partners date for a while

introduction only arranged marriage

parents just come up with a list of possible partners

Cultural Internalization

process by which cultural beliefs and practices are adopted by the individual and then enacted in the absence of immediate external contingencies or constraints -> Taking in guidelines, regulations and values n a way where you carry them out without external motivation

Deci and Ryan's theory of internalization

1. children are willing and active participants in the process 2. there are different processes by which internalization occurs 3. these different internalization processes result in qualitatively different styles of self-regulation 4. the social context influences which internalization and regulatory style occurs


Taking in and "swallowing" the values and standards of others without accepting them as one's own - results in feelings of alienation, occurs most when parents are authoritarian

Identification and Integration

fully assimilating a regulation with one's core sense of self- occurs most with autonomy supportive parents

Downie et al 2004

method: measured internalization through a list of activitiesresults: Specific links between internalization of each culture and affect in those cultural settings Internalization -> positive affect while in cultural setting Introjected/rejected -> negative affect while in cultural settingSignificant association between bi-cultural integration and global well being Confirmed by peer reports

Study: Why are some immigrants better able to internalize and integrate their multiple cultures?

method: measured parents' autonomy support re culture and used vignettes findings: Autonomy-support was significantly associated with autonomous internalization of heritage cultureInternalization of heritage cultural values was associated with better well-beingInternalization of host cultural values was also significantly associated with better well being

Study 2: Chinese Malaysian Sojourners to US, Canada, UK, Australia:

Findings: Even though not interacting with heritage culture or reminded of it, how you internalize your heritage culture was significantly an powerfully related to how they adapted to their new country Heritage culture is part of ourselves - makes it hard if it is confused and ambivalentAutonomy -support was significantly associated with autonomous internalization of heritage cultureInternalization of heritage cultural values was significantly associated with better adjustment for all participants

Conclusion of Downie Studies

- experiences of autonomy are critical to the successful adaptation of immigrants because they promote successful cultural internalization and integration

Cultural Relativism

the principle that an individual's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture

Deci and Ryan view on cultural guidelines

ome cultural guidelines are antithetical to our basic psychological needs - cannot be internalized - e.g. bride kidnapping

other key results from Downie studies

- The context of cultural values do differ across heritage countries Communal and individualistic cultural guidelines are easy to integrate- Vertical (hierarchical) practices were by far the most difficult to integrate -> People can only introject themThis is true for bi-cultural and mono-cultural individuals

Indicators of growing up "poor

Don't own homeMove frequentlySingle parentLive with relativesPublic assistanceFood stampsCharity clothesExposure to violence and drugs

allostatic load

the long-term negative impact of the stress response on the body

Recent recent on poverty and children

There is a direct relationship between the # of years that children have been living in poverty and with allostatic load - and certain indicators of lagging behind in cognitive functionFunctions affected: Working memory Executive function Language abilitiesMake it hard to plan, regulate emotions, communicate


Process in which teachers/parents model how to solve a problem, and then step back, offering support as needed -> "serve and volley" process

Key Concepts of SDT

two growth processes: intrinsic motivation and internalization three necessary conditions: connectedness, competence, autonomy

Parental involvement: 3 critical features

Child-centeredAchievement-orientedResponsibility training

child language study

method: measured # of words directed at a child by age of 4 results: Professional: 45 milWorking class: 26 milWelfare: 13 mil

Study: Would greater income make a difference?

method: 8 year study of 1400 children - 25% came into extra moneyresults: for families with financial infusion, the children started doing better - their trajectory started to change -> mediating mechanism was increased time spent with child

Motivational risks of growing up in a wealthy family

- hyper-parenting -> no autonomy

ego involvement

feelings of self-worth depend on certain levels of good performance - parents self worth becomes transferred to child's attainments, especially when competition and responsibility are highlighted

How do children of wealthy families turn out?

- wealthier kids score higher on depression, anxiety and substance use - mediating mechanisms: excessive parental pressure for achievement, isolation from parents

Key Features of Hyper-Parenting

1. Ego-involvement in child's goals2. Micro-managing child's development3. Over-scheduling of enrichment activities

The American Dream

the ideal that every US citizen should have an equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work, determination and initiative- but US is highly materialistic - emphasizes some values that people from other countries do not agree with

Amish people

Core values of "The simple Life": 1. Community and family2. Humility 3. Religious

George Brown 2002: On the Cultural Origins of Depression

depression holds a pivotal position in understanding what is wrong with society. While sadness, unhappiness and grief are inevitable, this is not true of depression...its origins are closely linked to the quality of core social roles

Kasser on Depression

depression related to whether we can satisfy our basic psychological needs -> Old fashioned, conformist people may be doing something that protects them

Kasser's Exploration of the Values underlying the American Dream

argues that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards, praise & competition relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals that are congruent with inherent grown tendencies

The Starlet

reality show about young actresses with aspirations to become a star -> sends "subliminal message about the fleeting nature of beauty & stardom" -> shows darker American values - hints that what they want will destroy them

Kasser's Framework (2002)

2 broad classes of aspirations distinguished on basis of content

extrinsic aspirations

depend on contingent reaction of others and are typically engaged in as means to an end- money (rewards), fame (competition), appealing image (praise)

intrinsic aspirations

expressive of natural growth tendencies and are likely to satisfy basic psychological needs- close relationships, community involvement, personal growth

Kasser & Ryan 1993 Study 1

Method: Community adults aged 18-79 completed surveys of aspirations and well-being, measured: Self-actualization Vitality Depression Physical symptomsResults: significant relationships between aspirations and well-being

2004 Meta-Analysis by Kasser

144 studies from all continents, 52% from North AmericaMean effect size of extrinsic aspirations with distress, r = .20Confirms Kasser's initial idea

STudy: Does it matter whether you achieve your aspirations?

Method: 200 young adults contacted one year after graduationAssessed aspirations, wellbeingFollow up at 1 year to assess attainment of aspirations, need satisfaction, and changes in well-being - having broad focus does guide behaviour -> leads you to succeed, but may obtain things that you are not looking forResults: Extrinsic: WB decreasedIntrinsic: WB decreased

Sheldon & Krieger 2014: Expressing aspirations in behaviour

method: Asked people how important certain values were, then asked what they were doingresults: gap especially for intrinsic aspirations: people did not act on theseConsistency between importance and enactment was highly related to better functioning

Kasser recommendations

we cannot altogether abandon the pursuit of extrinsic rewards -> should instead make sure that our focus on these aspirations is moderate and outweighed by intrinsic aspirations and be aware of factors that drive us toward materialistic values

Dr. Ross Story

Story about a doctor from Winnipeg who gave patients an ultimatum: either quit smoking or find another doctorPositive response from patients30 patients quit because of him, only 3 leftMany smokers must have tried to hide it - extrinsic motivation to push - patients must have felt ashamed and weak Only works in short term

Dr. Geoff Williams

2 basic ideas: - patient motivation is part of doctor's job - hw doctors interact with patients has a major impact on their motivation

smoking video

70% of smoker want to quit, only 20-30% want to quit soonSmokers reduce their life by 14.5 yearsConstantly having to push the consequences out of their mind40% of smokers try to quit each year - many do not go for intensive services, which makes it harder counselling and medication help a lot

2 key motivational concepts

autonomous motivation and autonomy support

autonomous motivation

feeling a sense of volition and choice in one's behaviourMore likely to succeed if you feel autonomous motivation

autonomy support

Taking and acknowledging patient's perspectiveProviding choicesProviding meaningful rationale

specifics of autonomy support:

Make eye contactAsk open-ended questionsListen carefullyDo not interruptEncourage initiation and involvementProvide a rationale for your suggestions

Williams: Smoking Cessation

method: 40 year old smokers meeting with doctor - coded doctor's motivational interview for autonomy support -> encouraging questions, taking perspectives, providing choices results: 10% of participants had quit smoking continually through 18 monthsDoctors who were more autonomy supportive led to better resultsAutonomy support -> autonomous motivation -> abstinence

Williams: Medication Non-Compliance

method: same study but with those with hypertension, measured with pill countresults: Same mediational model -> people who felt there doctors were more autonomy supportive, felt more volitional, higher levels of adherence

Williams: Diabetes Management

Perception of autonomy support -> autonomous reasons -> better glucose control


Motivation plays an important role in health settingsYour interpersonal behaviour can foster autonomous motivation and better health outcomes

Nalini Ambady

- researched malpractice law suits, coded small clips for dominance/warmth - Found that she could clearly identify which doctors had been sued for malpractice -> the ones high on dominance and low on warmth


1 of 4 forms of eating disorder1% prevalencePrimarily occurs in adolescenceHighest adolescent death rateHighly resistant to change- characterized by: denial, minimization, secrecy

Maudsley Family Based Treatment

Family as a resourceParents take charge of refeedingSiblings offer supportNo blameSeparation of disorder and adolescent

Anorexia motivational issues to consider

Ambivalence and resistance (denial)Autonomy and controlIntrojection and compulsionsstructure and continued autonomy support

three stages of FBT

Return to previous weightGradual return to adolescent control of eatingGradual exploration of identity and autonomy issues

Change mechanism of FBT

anorexia is a phobia, FBT is structured exposureDecreasing ambivalenceIncreasing autonomy

Problem with FBT

Very successful at stage 1But many patients and families have difficulty with the transition to independent eating Maintenance of cognitive symptoms Maintenance of safety behavioursPossible solution: Add treatment elements that promote motivation to change

Motivational Interviewing applied to anorexia FBT

- parents coached in MI - thought to facilitate motivation to change

Motivational Interviewing

founded by Dr. William Miller & Dr. Stephan Rollnick - patient centered and directive - series of open questions followed by active listening

Stages of Change

1. Precontemplation2. Contemplation3. Preparation4. Action5. Maintenance6. Termination

motivational interviewing pros

Compatible with individual differences in ambivalenceSuitable for mandated treatmentsBrief : Does not cure the problem, but is a good beginning stepTrainableNon-confrontational

4 Principles of MI

1. Express empathy2. Develop discrepancy3. Roll with resistance4. Support self-efficacy

4 techniques of MI

Open-ended questionsAffirmationsReflective listeningSummaries

meta-analysis: motivational interviewing and adolescents

substance use: d= .20 non substance use: d = .35 - long-term follow ups show that gains are maintained

Sheldon and Krieger's Description of the Life of a lawyer

Characterized by: Depression Anxiety Substance abuse Career dissatisfaction

Krieger's Hypotheses

intense pressure and competitive success norms reorient students away from positive personal interests and values and towards rewards and more image based values, leading to a loss of self esteem, life satisfaction and well being.

What is law school like?

- focus on competition, rank and status - excessively abstract, analytical teaching- isolating and intimidating teaching practices

Research Design to Examine the Motivational Effects of Law School

method: follow over 600 students at two large law schools from first year until grad -> one school competitive, other is student-centered, assess motivational, academic and WB outcomesresults: - dramatic and significant drop in WB< life values, motivation adn need satisfaction - Students at the high prestige law school experienced the more dramatic damaging changes- The kids from the moderate ranked school outperformed the students form the higher ranked school on the bar exam -> those from higher prestige school were burned out

Do the changes in the motivational variable mediate the drop in well being?

Yes: correlations with decrease in well being: Decrease in intrinsic values, r = .17 Decrease in autonomous motivation, r = .19 Decrease in need satisfaction, r = .21*

Are the high prestige lawyers happier in the future?

No -> Lower job satisfaction Do not want their children to go into the profession

Being Autonomous Amidst Controls

Causality orientation: Be an autonomous personPromoting one's own development: Find supports - use peers to cope with situation Managing your managerManage one's own experiences Emotion regulation Awareness and flexibility -> be mindful and aware of what is happening to you Behaviour regulation -> feedback and flexibility