What is intrinsic motivation?

Natural propensity to engage one's interests and exercise one's capacities

When are people intrinsically motivated?

When they feel:1. volitional 2. autonomous 3. without reward 4. un-threatened

Why was the 'Kermie' award not worth it?

4th graders felt extrinsically motivated to read and felt controlled

What occured when Lepper et al., introduced rewards for good drawing?

1. During free-choice period only 9% chose to draw2. Quality of drawing was low

What occured when Lepper et al. (1973), introduced an unexpected reward?

1. 18% drew during free-choice period (highest)2. Good quality drawings (highest)

What is motivational affective theory?

We are intrinsically motivated because it taps into our basic need of autonomy and competence

Harter's research found that...

As children get older their level of curiosity declines

When Allington et al., 2010 addressed the 'summer slide' they found that...

The quality of reading material did not effect reading achievements 3 years later

What are the 4 reasons why we praise kids

1. Creative bond 2. Motivate 3. Protect4. Manipulate

What factors determine the motivational impact of praise?

1. Type of relationship 2. Type of praise 3. Age, gender, culture 4. Public nature

How does Brophy (1981) define praise?

To commend the worth of someone's behavior or to express approval or admiration

Praise will act as a reinforcement if it is...

1. Contingent 2. Specific 3. Credible

Explain praise as positive guidance

Friendly banter to create a positive atmosphere. Comes from agreeable and extroverted people and it does not enhance motivation.

Explain praise as a transitional ritual

Moving onto something else is not contingent on completion. e.g., If you have been working on a math problem for 20 mins, teacher would say "that is great, you guys are really getting it, now let's read some Shakespeare

Explain praise as balanced for criticism

Sandwiching the corrective comment in praise before and after

Positive guidance, transitional ritual, and balance for criticism are controlled by what?

The personality of the teacher

When do teachers use icebreakers or peace offerings?

When dealing with a bully or problem child

Explain consolation prizes as a form of encouragement in schools.

Praise to the slow kids in the class, which is different than praise to other kids

Explain vindication of predictions

This form of praise is used for kids that are smart, but are lazy

What does attempting vicarious reinforcement attempt to achieve?

Send a message to the rest of the class by praising the smartest kid.

What is student elicited stroking?

Systematically reinforcing the teachers so that they will praise them more

Spontaneous expression of surprise or admiration is..

Contingent, specific, and credible to what you did. It is not systematic meaning, the benefits will not accrue over time

Icebreakers/peace offerings, consolations prizes, vindication of predictions vicarious reinforcement, student-elicited stroking, and spontaneous expression of surprise or admiration are all controlled by...

Qualities and characteristics of the student

What are Brophy's recommendations about praising students?

1. Don't go out of your way to praise kids 2. It is probably motivated by your personality 3. Make kids feel controlled and/or incompetent

What are the 2 ways of giving praise (Dweck 2018)?

1. Process praise: emphasizing children's effort, strategies, or specific actions 2. Person praise: indicates that the child has a fixed, positive quality ("good girl)

Dweck's 2018 study on parent praise and child's academic achievement found that...

1. Mother's beliefs about malleability does not influence child's beliefs 2. The way the mother praised the child is strongly related to whether they develop malleable or fixed mindsets

What are the 5 functional factors of Scanlon's 1992 model of sports commitment?

1. Sports enjoyment 2. Involvement opportunities 3. Personal investment 4. Involvement alternatives 5. Social constraints

In Deci's 1981 study on competition he found that...

Participants who were competing showed less intrinsic motivation than those who were in parallel play condition

Reeve and Deci's conclusion on competition and intrinsic motivation indicated that...

Winning a competition may not undermine motivation if there is not undue pressure to win

Vallerand and Losier 1994's longitudinal study about competition and sportsmanship found that...

Competitive motivation at time 1 significantly predicts reduced sportsmanship at time 2

What are some key differences between USA and Finland schools?

1. USA has a lot of homework vs Finland has little homework 2. Finland does not use grades until age 12 3. Finland does not have classes for gifted students whereas the US does 4. Teachers are not feared in Finland 5. US gives merit pay for teachers 6. US gives money to students for maintaining good grades 7. Finland has recess every hour 8. US classes emphasize math and science

What can teachers do to help children maintain their intrinsic motivation?

1. Encourage cooperation 2. Support autonomy

Name Johnson and Johnson 1993 3 goal structures.

1. Competition: people attain their goals only if others do not 2. Cooperative: people attain their goals only when others do so also 3. Individualism: people attain their goals without affecting the goal attainment of others

Johnson and Johnson's review of 200 studies shows that cooperation is associated with...

1. Greater intrinsic motivation 2. Greater mastery of principles and concepts 3. Greater communication skills 4. Better attitudes toward teachers and schools 5. Better attitudes toward classmates6. Higher self-esteem and mental health

What is attunement?

Taking the perspective of the student and using student interest and input to guide teaching

While interviewing teachers Reeve, 2004 identified controlling teachers because they....

1. Emphasized evaluation 2. Emphasized high standards 3. Direct4. Emphasized competition

While interviewing teachers Reeve 2004, identified autonomy supportive teachers because they...

1. Listened more 2. Encourage conversation 3. Allocated time for independent work 4. Show interest in what they were learning

What is project-based learning in Finnish schools?

They have classes that involves groups of children to understand some big question about any subject

Research on the benefits of choice show that...

Personalization and choice lead to higher motivation and performance

The study on software to aid learning showed that...

Kids whose game was personalized, and had choices liked the game more

Sarah P's 2010 study on mandatory vs volitional reading logs showed that...

Mandatory reading logs decreased reading interest and attitude on recreational reading whereas, volitional reading logs increased it

Iyengar and Lepper 1999's study on the comparison of American and East Asian cultures and choice they found that...

American kids personal choice is superior than mom or experimenter choice whereas, East Asian's preferred mom choice

The meaning of personal choice depends on _________.

How the self is constructed (independent or interdependent)

What is cultural internalization

The process by which cultural beliefs and practices are adopted by the individual and then enacted in the absence of immediate external contingencies or constraints

What is Deci and Ryan's theory of internalization?

1. Children are willing and even active participants in the process 2. 2 processes of internalization: introjection and integration 3. These different internalization processes result in different self-regulation styles 4. The social context influences which internalization process and regulatory style occurs

What is introjection?

Taking in a value or regulatory process but not accepting it as one's own

What is integration?

Fully assimilating a regulation with one's core sense of self

What were the findings in Downie et al., 2004's study on immigrants?

The degree to which immigrants fully internalize their host and heritage cultures will importantly relate to their adjustment

Why are some immigrants better able to internalize and integrate their multiple cultures? (downie studies)

If we experience a more democratic approach by parents

What is cultural relativism?

The principle that an individual's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture (e.g., bride kidnapping)

What are the 2 growth processes in the self-determination theory?

1. Intrinsic motivation 2. Internalization

What are some potential outcomes if basic needs are not met?

1. Lack of self control 2. Externalizing problems 3. Early sexualization 4. Mental health issues 5. Drug use

What are the 3 critical features of parental involvement?

1. Child centered 2. Achievement oriented 3. Responsibility training

What occurred when family income increased in an Indigenous community in North Carolina due to casino royalties?

Kids started functioning better once their family came into money

What is ego-involvement?

Feeling of self-worth depend on certain levels of good performance

Luthar 2003's study on teenagers from wealthy vs middle class backgrounds suggests that...

Wealthy kids are more likely to experience depression anxiety and substance abuse due to excessive parental pressure for achievement

What are the key features of hyper-parenting?

1. Ego-involvement in child's goals 2. Micro-managing child's development 3. Over-scheduling of enrichment activities

Name Kasser and Ryan 1993's 3 intrinsic goals when it comes to wellbeing

1. Close relationships 2. Community involvement 3. Personal growth

Name Kasser and Ryan 1993's 3 extrinsic goals when it comes to wellbeing

1. Money 2. Fame 3. Appealing image

Name the 2 broad classes of aspirations distinguished on basis of content

1. Extrinsic aspirations depend on contingent reactions of others and are typically engaged in as a means to an end 2. Intrinsic aspirations are expressive of natural growth tendencies and are likely to satisfy basic psychological needs

What are the findings of Kasser and Ryan's 1993 study on aspirations and wellbeing?

Depression was higher for those with extrinsic aspirations. Intrinsic aspirations are associated with wellbeing

Hope et al., 2018's prospective longitudinal study on aspirations and wellbeing showed that...

Aspirations do predict future wellbeing

After Dr. Williams got his PhD in motivation, he found that there are 2 reasons why it is so difficult for patients to follow recommendations, name them.

1. Biggest part of a doctors role is to motivate their patients 2. Doctor interactions with patients interfere with their capacity to internalize and follow through

What are the 2 key motivational concepts?

1. Autonomous motivation: feeling volitional and choiceful2. Autonomy support: acknowledging person's perspective, providing choice, and meaningful rationale

What are the 4 As in Dr. William's smoking cessation study?

1. Ask 2. Advise 3. Assist 4. Arrange

What were the results in William's smoking cessation study?

Patients who had an autonomy supportive doctor were autonomously motivated, they changed because it was personally important, and was associated with a higher likelihood of quitting

Ambady's research on malpractice law-suits found...

Doctors who were high on dominance and low on warmth were sued for malpractice

What are the 3 stages of Family Based Treatment change

1. return to previous weight 2. Gradual return to adolescent control of eating 3. Gradual exploration of autonomy and identity issues

What are the change mechanisms in Family Based Treatment?

1. Exposure 2. Decreasing ambivalence 3. Increasing autonomy

What is motivational interviewing?

Patient centered, directive counselling style that builds on intrinsic motivation to facilitate change in health-related behaviors

What are the 6 stages of the stages of change theory?

1. Precontemplation2. Contemplation 3. Preparation 4. Action 5. Maintenance 6. Relapse

What are the 4 principles of Motivational Interviewing

1. Expressing empathy 2. Developing discrepancy 3. Rolling with resistance 4. Supporting self-efficacy

What are the 4 techniques of motivational interviewing?

1. Open-ended questions 2. Affirmations 3. Reflective listening 4. Summaries