What is intrinsic motivation?

Our natural propensity to engage our interests and exercise our capacities

Koestner's story about buying a book for his nephew...

- when he was 40, he needed to buy a book for his 10-year-old nephew-bought him the Harry Potter book-he read to his nephew but ended up becoming invested in the series himself- he ordered all of them when they came out, would re-read the last book in prep for the new book when a new one would come out- His favorite books are 1,4 and 7- when the 7th book came out, he decided he wanted to pick a special place to read it, he picked the beach

Reading story of Sophie (daughter)...

- began reading at 2, had a collection of 30-40 books-did not become an independant reader until grade 2 (did not want to push her) - In grade 4, Sophies teacher implemented a reading competition: whoever reads the most books gets a "kermie"-Sophie began reading more but the reading seemed compuslive and forced- She won the Kermie (Which was a doll from kermit the frog)-in grade 5 (next year), teacher set aside time for independant reading- Koestner tried to give Sophie harry potter books but the teacher said they were too "mainstream and popular", kept rejecting all of Koestners suggestions-when the teacher realized Sophie was a good reader, she started getting her to read sophisticated and socially meaningful books - Koestner felt that the teacher was trying to channel sophies reading interest, and was giving her the message that "she was only allowed to read certain books"-over the years there was a shift in Sophie's motivation from extrinsic to intrinsic and she did not like reading as much anymore

Pizza Hut Program - Book It! Program

Provide free pizza and some sort of recognition to children (K-6) that can demonstrate that they read a lot of books

Lepper et al (1973) - Free Choice Paradigm

1. Pre-tested children to identify which activities they were intrinsically motivated to do - found that children enjoyed drawing tasks 2. Separated into 3 groups:a. control: we want to see if you enjoy drawingb. Reward: reward given to the person with the best drawingc. Other: praise given after drawing3. Leave children in the room and see how much time is spent on each activityDV: - % of time spent drawing - # of pictures drawn - quality of drawing (graded by college students)Finding: people in reward condition did worse in each DV measureKey - Explicit contingency, if you are doing something for an explicit reason, you only work towards the goal and do not enjoy the process

What did Koestners meta-analysis show?

1. AGE - most detrimental to young children2. CULTURE - shown across all cultures3. TYPE OF ACTIVITY - must be one which you are intrinsically motivated to do4. TYPE OF REWARD - did not matter- non-contingent rewards - no effect on intrinsic motivation- verbal rewards - increase intrinsic motivation -unexpected rewards - no effect

What other factors does rewards affect?

1. Enjoyment - decreases2. Pursuit of challenge - decreases3. Cognitive flexibility and creativity - decreases4. Spontaneity and Expressiveness - decreases5. Positive Emotional tone in relating to others - decreases

Other factors which undermine intrinsic motivation

1. Threats of negative consequences2. Surveillance 3. Deadlines4. Goal competition 5. Evaluation

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

1. Intrinsic motivation is increased with perceived autonomy2. Intrinsic motivation is increased with perceived competence3. External factors can have 1 in 3 meaningsa. amotivatingb. controllingc. informational

Why does intrinsic motivation drop in Junior High (grade 6-7)?

- more focus on evaluation, competition- grades decrease with a decrease in intrinsic motivation

Should you use extrinsic motivation to encourage kids when they do not have intrinsic motivation? (Guthrie et al)

No, you should...1. Encourage choice2. Find interesting and realvent texts3. Facilitate social interaction around the material4. Engage in hands on activities

Study - Allington et al, the Summer Slide

- Found that children in lower economic backgrounds often get behind in school due to lack of reading during summer breakStudy: Addressing this set back1. Book fair condition - students got to pick 12 books from the book fair (whichever they wanted) (#1 choice was pop culture)2. Control - were given a puzzleFinding: reading levels significantly increased in book fair condition

Steps to rekindle your intrinsic motivation

1. Find something that sparks your interest2. Don't judge yourself (e.g. try different formats) 3. Trust that intrinsic motivation will lead to increasing challenge4. A Progression - will eventually come

What was the name of the drawing Koestners nephew drew for him?

the chair that blew away

Why do we praise children?

1. Create bonds2. Motivate them3. Protect their self-esteem4. Manipulate them into doing something

Koestner's examples of praise...

1. Holy Cross Basketball - spontaneous praise, was positive experience2. Before 8th grade class - was brought infront of the class by a teacher and told he got into a good school - did not like this, felt controlled

Factors affecting the way praise is interpreted...

1. Type of praise2. Cultural background/age/gender3. Public nature4. Type of relationship

Brophy's Experiment

Observational field study analyzing the way teachers praise their students... -5% of the teachers communication was praise-10% was criticismWas praise reinforcing? -within classroom: no correlation btwn amount of praise given to a student and their achievement-between classrooms: no correlation btwn amount of praise given by teacher and class successWas praise given as verbal reinforcements? - amount of praise did not correlate with quality of work- given in a perfunctory way

When does praise act as verbal reinforcements?

When praise is... 1. Contingent2. Specific3. Credible

Brophy's 9 different types of praise...

- first 3 are controlled by the personality of a teacher- last 6 are controlled by qualities and characteristics of student1. Praise as a positive guidance - to create a warm atmosphere - "you guys are all so well behaved"2. Praise as a transitional ritual - "that was so good, now lets move on"3. Praise to balance criticism - criticism sandwich 4. Icebreaker or peace offering - you are not in the dog house 5. Consolidation or encouragement - praising slower kids on doing well (kind of embarrassing)6. Vindication of predictions 7. Attempted vicarious reinforcement - using one student as an example as ideal behaviour (e.g. John Kreuger)8. Student-Elicited Stroking - by an apple-polishing student9. Spontaneous Praise

From clip shown, what are the positive effects of positive feedback?

1. Performance increases2. Conflict reduces 3. Autonomy improves

What is a better alternative to the praise sandwhich?

Empathy sandwich

What were Brophy's conclusions?

Children do not need praise to master the curriculum, acquire acceptable behaviours or to have a healthy self-image

Dweck and Colleagues study...

Observational study - observed parents with their children (years 1-3) for 90 minutesHypothesis: does the mothers ideas on malleability of children's ability lead them to give more person-praise?Finding: there was no correlation between parents beliefs on malleability of intelligence but the children's beliefs were affected by how much person vs process praise was given

Scanlon's Model of Sports Commitment

5 factors predict your commitment to a sport....1. Sport enjoyment2. Involvement opportunities3. Personal investment4. Involvement alternatives5. Social constraints Missing factor - COMPETITION

Deci et al 1981 study on Intrinsic motivation and Competition

Free choice paradigm - puzzle game with engineering students2 Conditions: Parallel play: "do your best"Competition: beat the other person* 1 participant and 1 confederate, confederate was told to make sure participant wins every timeFinding: IM decreased in competition condition - Deci argues that competition undermines intrinsic motivationmissing something?

Csikszentmihalyi - 1975

Asked basket ball players why they play basketball. Top answers were...1. Competition 2. Developing personal skills3. Making friends4. Activity itself 5. Enjoyment itself/using skills6. Measuring self against your own standards7. Prestige/rewards8. Emotional release

What was Koestners concern with Kassers program?

Thought it was common sense to focus on intrinsic motivational goals e.g. spend time forming relationships, personal growth, giving back

Deci and Reeve - Competition and Intrinsic motivation

Free choice paradigm with competitionConditions:1. Non-controlling competitive: divided into when confederates win vs when they lose2. Controlling competitive: focus on the winning (could not divide categories cause ethics did not allow controlling + lose condition) DV: a. Competenceb. Controlc. Intrinsic motivation (measured by free choice) Finding: people's IM increased the most in the non-controlling + win condition, in non-controlling + lose, people felt incompetent Key finding: must consider whether you win or lose or if it is controlling or non-controlling

Reeve and Deci's Conclusion

You can have competition increase I.M. if you focus on the challenge and not on beating another person (if there is no focus on winning) - works more in a lab but in real life it is hard to imagine a situation like this

Chipmunk story

A girls dad was the coach of the soccer game, everybody used to need to play 1/2 of the game (rule), rule thrown out the window for the championships, the daughter did not get to play at all - probably decreased her I.M.

Other effects of competition...

Changes the way we play, decreases sportsmanship

Vallerand and Losier study

Did a study on Quebec PeeWee AAA hockey playersFinding: when intrinsic motivation decreased and desire for competition increased, sportsmanship also decreased (competitive motivation significantly predicts decreased sportsmanship)

Competition and intrinsic motivation with age

Sports get more competitive, you need to compete to make teams etc., people begin to feel incompetentDecreases in sportsmanship with increased competition focus

What would the Toronto Royal Ballet school teacher say about teaching competition?

You might not like it, but this is the real world

What does prof say about teaching competition?

Not really necessary in interpersonal relationships, and now more than ever jobs are looking for people who are collaborative, and have math/analytical skills

What inspired Koestners lecture about Finnish schools?

Book by Paul Sahlberg - read because in Quebec there was problems about preparing students in school for the work force - Finnish students performed in the top 15 countries (other were Asian countries)- Finland was 5th - Singapore, Japan, Estonia were top 3

Characteristics of Singapore school system?

- American schools tried to adapt Singapores system, comprised of....1. more standards2. more homework3. longer days 4. Higher stakes testing5. Focus on math and science - too much of a focus on extrinsic motivation- too much deliberate practice (homework), on average is 15 hours in Singapore but we cap our deliberate practice at 4 hours (cannot do more than that)

What is the Finnish school system like?

- starts at age 7- same teacher for 3 years - teachers addressed by first name- no grades till 12 years old- recess every hour - no uniform- no prizes/rewards- very little homework

What did the Finnish look at from American School research which they wanted to adapt?

1. Cooperation, Collaboration over competition2. Autonomy support, self-directed learning, personal responsibility - based on Johnson and Johnson research and other American research in the 80s and 90s

Johnson & Johnson 1999 - 3 goal structures...

1. Competition: people reach goals only if others do not2. Cooperative: people reach goals only alongside others3. Individualism: someone reaching their goal is independant of others not reaching their own goals

Johnson and Johnsons study of the 3 goal structures

Randomly assigned students to different classroom structures based on 1 of the 3 goal structuresFinding: collaborative goal structure yielded the best results...- better I.M.- greater mastery-greater communication strategies-better attitudes towards teachers and school AND classmates (including minorities)- better mental health- higher self-esteem

Radio Canada Analysis of Finnish Schooling System

- they mention cooperation but they highlight autonomye.g. highlight that students evaluate themselves

What did they find with kids in Montessori schools?

Montessori schools are very similar to Finnish schools, they found that I.M. was stable and high across time, did not decrease

Impact of teacher styles - Deci Experiment

Observational studyQuestion: Does a teachers way of motivation impact the intrinsic motivation?Went into a classroom of 5th and 6th graders and coded the way the teacher was in terms of being autonomy supportive or controlling via giving 12 vignettes and coding their response to the hypothetical situation (in September)Findings: in October and in May, finding shows that the more autonomy supportive the teacher was the higher the intrinsic motivation, the cognitive competence and general self-worth was of the students

Autonomy support in Finland

- teachers and students both have autonomy- teachers are able to come up with their own ways on how to teach the course material to the students- when asked about not being #1 anymore, Finland responds by saying they want to foster intrinsic motivation, make school an enjoyable place for all and want to raise students well-being-Began introducing project-based learning: interdisciplinary projects (e.g. going to the field and speaking to refugees to combat xenophobia)

What is Singapore doing to improve its children's schooling?

- Worried because their children are becoming anxious and depressed- Want to wean away from the "drilling and killing" method (natural curiosity is being lost) - They took out high stake testing for 1st and 2nd graders-want to promote lifelong learning

Finland now has...

1. Highest literacy rates2. Highest job proficiency3. Highest academic success IN THE WORLD

Example - Vinit Sethi

Janist Indian/Pakistani Canadian- had an arranged marriage

Koestners story of how he met his wife (Helen)

Chapters bookstore in self help section- knew her before but now was single- forgot to get her number so went to her work and asked her out-still married (28 years from lecture)- he likes this story because it fit the role of how much he wanted to play a role in selecting a wife, it was courageous

Choice Paradigm Study - BEDMAS

Gave 4th and 5th graders a software learned to teach them BEDMAS which included a spaceship adventure story Control condition: no choicesChoice condition: could chose which spaceshipPersonalization condition: story incorporated names of the students friends etc. Finding: personalization and choice condition led to higher motivation and performance - gives a sense of autonomy

Study by Sarah P

Wanted to see if mandatory reading logs (parents sign off on 20 min of reading a night) would improve or diminish intrinsic motivationConditions:Control: reading logs were mandatoryChoice: reading logs were volitional Finding: in the choice condition, there was a significant increase in intrinsic motivation

Study by Sheeneya Iyengar & Lepper

She is Indian and wanted show that personal choice (autonomy) meant different things to everybodyCompleted a free choice paradigm with anglo-american and Asian-americans with anagrams in 3 conditions1. Moms choice which anagram you did2. Teachers choice which anagram you did3. Personal choice which anagram you did DV: success at completing anagrams and intrinsic motivationFinding: Anglo-americans: personal choice yielded best resultsIndian Americans: moms choice yielded best results

Sheeneya Iyengar & Lepper Second Study...

Wanted to show that this effect was not exclusive to family but any in-group memberDid a math games paradigm study but instead of mom condition, the anagram was chosen by...1. In-Group member: someone in your group2. Out-group member: someone outside your group3. Personal choiceDV: self-reported interest and test-retest knowledge Finding:Anglo-americans: personal choice yielded best results(motivation and knowledge gained after intervention) Asian-americans: in-group member yielded best results (motivation and knowledge gained after intervention)

Study in Hong Kong - Bao and Lamm

Repeated Lepper and Iyengar's study in Hong-Kong - Chinese 5th graders assigned to mother vs personal choice conditionDV: level of autonomy separate from choiceFinding: children felt more autonomous when their mother was making the choice

How did Vinit's Marrige turn out?

He is very happy - probably would not be as happy if he married someone he chose for himselfProblem with Mother in law - Mom wanted his wife to not go to school and dress freely but Vinit wanted that for his wife

Cross-sectional Study in India

1/2 of Indians have arranged marriagesLooked at years of happiness and years of marriageFinding: people with arranged marriages start off less happy than personally chosen marriages but their happiness in later years is higher in arranged marriagesCouples with arranged marriages report long term happiness

Categories of Arranged Marriages

- Listed in terms of most to least forceful 1. Forced Marriage - mostly in Central Africa, no choice2. Arranged Marriage - can say no but there is coercion3. Modern Arranged Marriage - what Vinit has4. Modern Arranged Marriage + Courtship - with dating5. Introduction only arranged Marriage

Azhar Haidri

Married 2 women - 1 arranged and one personal choice because he could not decide which route to go

Austrian traditions Koestner did not internalize...

1. Going to German school on Saturday mornings2. Eating Wurst3. Wearing Leder-Hosens4. Playing accordian5. Polka-dancing6. Playing soccer

Why was Koestner able to reject his culture?

His mom also wanted to reject his culture

Cultural Integration

Process by which cultural beliefs and practices are adopted by the individual and enacted in the absence of immediate external contingencies or constraints

Deci and Ryan's theory of internalization

1. Children are willing and active participants in their own internalization - they have an urge to be close to their parents and relate to them2. Internalization can occur through 2 processes - introjection or integration3. The type of process of internalization results in different methods of self-regulation4. The social context influences which process of internalization and regulatory style occurs

When does introjection occur?

When parents are authoritarian- When parents are autonomy-supportive, integration occurs

TOP to put over a babies bed is an example of what?

Introjection - example was Ryan, Koestners nephew

Downie et al study (#1) - Affect in Cultural setting and Integration vs Introjection

At McGill Wanted to see if there is an association with affect, culture and global well-being- Asked students questions about why they do specific cultural things from their host and heritage culture then categorized cultural internalization by: identified (integrated), introjected or external DV: affect in culture (host or heritage), and global well being - measured using self-reports and peer reports (global well-being)Finding: people had higher affect in the cultures that they integrated with. People had higher global well-being if they were integrated to both of their cultures.

Downie et al #2 - Measuring parents autonomy support

- Got a few 100 immigrants/second gen and assessed to see if their parents were autonomy-supportive or controlling1. Asked student answer questions/rate 10 items to assess their parents autonomy support2. Asked students to answer what their parents would do in Vignettes - what would your parents do if you married outside of the culture? Most common response: More than 50% of people said their parents would forbid them2nd most common response: treat them coldy and firmly emphasize the importance of dating someone from our own culture3rd most coming: express his/her disappointment while respecting my choice (20%)A good, autonomy support one: be happy that I am happy (no student endorsed this)

Downie Study 3 - parenting style and internalization style

-Had a good estimate about if parents were autonomy supportive or controllingFinding: children were more likely to introject cultures if the parents were controlling- Study found that usually both parents were the same level of autonomy-supportive/controlling as the other, but this is not always the case

Downie Study 4 - Sojourners (Chinese Malaysians to U.K., U.S., Canada or UK)

- Tested if their parents were autonomy supportive or controllingFinding:1. Autonomy support = more integration2. The more they integrated with their heritage culture, the easier they found it to integrate into the new society (Carry-over effect)

Finding from all of Downies Studies

Autonomy support is essential for the successful adaption of immigrants as it allows them to have successful cultural integration

Austrian Family Follow-up (Koestner)

His family came from Austria and he found they were much more Americanized than he thought- Immigrants are frozen in time and try to preserve their culture more -Koestner regrets introjecting his culture, wish he engaged with it more

Cultural Relativism

The principle that an individual's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture

Example of cultural relativism

Koestner got a phone call to talk about Flaking - immigrants are shocked by Americans doing this

Ed Deci on Cultural relativism...

There are some cultures which are anti-ethical and go against our basic needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness and are impossible to internalize e.g. Bride Kidnapping (Kyrgyzstan)

Cultural Dimensions...

Based on whether a culture is Egalitarian or HierarchalEgalitarian: means believing the principal that all people deserve equal rights and opportunities -Canada, Australia, DenmarkHierarchical: a system in which people are arranged in order of their importance or rank - India, Malaysia, Pakistan

Example of a culture hard to integrate too

Kelijin Kenyan Tribe - genital mutilation

2 researchers focused on in Lecture 19 (growing up poor vs rich)

1. Martha Farah2. Sunyia Luthar

Why did Koestner like saying he grew up poor

Made him look like the under dog

Why did Martha Farah begin getting into this field?

Was a neuroscientist but then became a professor when she had a child. Had to higher baby sitters - baby sitters were often poor and brought their children along. Noticed at younger ages her child and the baby-sitters children were the same but at around 4-6 years old, the children of the Nannies seemed to fall behind her child's progressed- Realized the stress of being poor affects brain development in children

Martha Farah's Indicators of Poverty

1. Does not own a home2. Moves around a lot3. Lives with relatives 4. Single parent5. Relies on public service6. Food stamps7. Charity Clothes8. Exposure to drugs and violence

Example of poverty video

in the Mountains of Appalachia

Martha Farahs Longnitudinal Studies of Poor Children

- Looked at allostatic load and working memory- found that working memory decreased faster in poor children-effects language, executive function


-Involves putting out structures which enables a child to be interested in and master important activities -Occurs more in high income households because parents have more time with their children- Estimated 20 hours of reading experience with parent (low income) to 75 hours of reading experience (high income) -Children will be differentiated and richer kids would go to accelerated classes and get even more help

2 Natural Processes Important for Development...

1. Intrinsic Motivation - only occurs when you are securely attached to important people and in a safe environment 2. Integration - taking in importnat guidelines and structures - in poor households, there is not a lot of structure or organization and therefore it is hard to integrate life skills e.g. going to sleep at the same time every night

The Self-Determination Theory states...

3 important aspects of life....1. Autonomy2. Competence3. Relatedness Poor families are often permissive (under-parenting) - leading the child to feel anxious and not autonomy-supported

Behavioural aspects poverty is associated with...

1. Lack of Self-Control (associated with many mental health problems)2. Externalizing behaviour3. Alcohol and drug abuse4. Early sexual activity

Throwback to the 3 factors in a child-parent relationship for developing expertiese

1. Child centred 2. Achievement oriented3. Responsibility training- Unlikely to have these factors in a poor environment

Study - By language development experts

- Gave 2-year-olds a detector which was activated whenever anyone spoke to themDV: the # of words spoken to the 2-year-old over 2 weeksConditions: welfare parents, working parents, professional parentsFinding: -professional 45 million words-working - 26 million words-welfare - 13 million words***This would have a big impact on your competence

Study in Alappacian Mountans - small community in North Carolina

- Longitudinal study involving 8 year follow upQuestion: what does gaining money do to individuals in this environment? - in the community, there was a casino built, enabled the Indigenous members of the community to come into more money - did this effect their child functioning? Finding: almost causational increase - children who came into more money started to function better and their trajectories went up

Potential Motivational risks in high income areas?

1. Over-parenting2. Controlled motivation- feelings of being controlled and alienated

Distinguishing different ways of parent involvement (Grolnick 2002)

- Some parents are ego-involved, this can sometimes transfer to childrens own attainments, especially when competition and responsibility are really high- Can induce ego-involvement in a parent by saying their childs attainments are a direct representation of themselves

Sunyia Luthars research shows...

1. Substance abuse is greater in wealthy kids2. Substance abuse in wealthy kids is used as a way of self-medicating3. Levels of anxiety and substance abuse were highest in wealthy kids vs middle income kids - Hard to get funding for these experiments because no one wants to spend money on kids who are already wealthy

What were the Mediating Mechanisms Sunyia Luthar found for her results?

- Conducted surveys and was able to identify child-parent mediators explaining the vulnerability of wealthy kids to their problems1. High expectations - good academics, sports, instruments, good friends2. Feelings of isolation (emotionally and physically) from parents - often come home to an empty house 3. Wealthy parents often do not emotionally care about their children

Rosenfeld (2000) - statement on parental motivations

Many parents start out by saying "I want to do what's best for my child", then say "I want my child to be the best" - parent then begins to hyper-parent

Key Features of Hyper-Parenting

1. Ego-involvement in child's goals2. Micro-managing child's development3. Over-scheduling enriching activities

The American Dream

The ideal that each individual should have equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work, dedication and initiative

Tim Kasser

Wrote a book on the Dark Side of the American Dream based on materialism and ideals which are different in other parts of the world

Koestner and Amish Summers

Lived in Lancaster Pennsylvania, the capital of Amish people in North America. His dad made them spend time in Amish villages when he got off work

Core values of the Amish

1. Community and family2. Humility3. Religion

Amish Controversy about Education

Amish belive that education ruins humility- In the U.S., you need to legally go to school until age of 16- Amish asked to Supreme court, which agreed to make an acception for the Amish communities, allowing them to stop schooling at 14

George Brown

Depression holds a pivotal position in understanding what is wrong with a society - Depression is not inevitable, so it is probably linked to the core values of a society - Amish have less depression, maybe they have better core values

Kassers Exploration of the Values Underlying the American Dream

-Something about the values and aspirations associated with the American Dream that pose a risk for our adaptation and adjustment - Kassers research program suggests this might be due to the focus on extrinsic rewards

Kassers 3 Intrinsic goals to focus on...

1. Community involvement 2. Personal growth3. Close relationships - call these intrinsic aspirations because they satisfy our basic needs- our meeting these goals can be distracted by other goals of society (extrinsic goals)

Big 3 extrinsic goals (in America?)

1. Money (reward)2. Fame (competition)3. Appealing image (praise)

The Starlet

A competition show for actors - example of extrinsic reward in North America- prize of winning is a chance to play on the TV series "One Tree Hill" - The NY times said it showed "Subliminal messages about the fleeting nature of stardom and beauty" and showed the "narcissistic nature of American culture"- Screen test, the reward was to sleep in Marylin Monroes bed (who committed suicide)- Another task, had to act a scene as Whitney Huston (also commit suicide)- Dopleganger section of the show - people were excited to be paired with someone who was widley recognized so they could gain more recognition themselves

Kasser's 2 Broad Classes of Aspiration - distinguished based on content

1. Extrinsic Motivation - based on other peoples reactions to your attainments2. Intrinsic Motivation - Based on personal growth and are likely to satisfy your basic psychological needs

Study - are your goals extrinsic or intrinsic?

Asked people about how much importance they give to intrinsic goals (community involvement, close relationships, personal growth) vs extrinsic goals (money, fame, appealing image) over the yearsFindings: 1970s - 30% say money2000 - 60% say moneynow - 75% say moneyExtrinsic goals are being more and more emphasized in the U.S. over time - These studies controlled for the likelihood of attainment and the same results still showed (that money is the leading motivator)

Kasser and Ryan (1993) Study #1

They measured peoples aspirations as intrinsic vs extrinsic focus through an aspirations measure and a general well-being assessment measuring....- Self-actualization-Vitality-Depression-Physical symptoms (negative) Finding: Intrinsic motivation was associated with positive indicators like self-actualization, EM was the opposite - These methods of well-being were self-assessments, repeated study but used assessments by psychiatrists and the same results emerged.

Kasser and Ryan #2 - Germans vs Americans

Found the aspirational classifications in Germans and Americans Finding: - Americans had higher intrinsic AND extrinsic focuses- Germans had a slightly stronger focus on intrinsic focuses - this was associated with better self-actualization, less depression, less anxiety and physical symptoms- Early in this research program, they shifted from measuring either intrinsic motivation OR extrinsic motivation, to measuring both and found that what matters is the relative balance between the two - the magnitude of the balance between the two can speak to differences in well being- Finding - we all (mostly) value intrinsic motivation more, but it is just to what extent, that matters

Aspirations and Well-being test in Korea

Yielded the same results - self-actualization was high with more of a focus on intrinsic motivation, and depression, anxiety and physical symptoms were low

2014 Meta Analysis - Kasser at al

Did a meta-analysis measuring life aspirations/materialism/etc. and related factors in different countries around the world- 114 studies -52% conducted North AmericansFinding: extrinsic motivation was associated with distress (r = .20)

Hope et al 2018

Prospective study looking at intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on future well-being- Measured peoples intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and correlated this with their well-being at 2 year follow upFinding: intrinsic motivation is correlated with greater well-being at follow upMediating Factor: need satisfaction, people who have more I.M. report feeling like they have greater satisfaction of their psychological needs

Koestners examples of extrinsic motivation in his own life

- buying the bright blue nike shoes he saw someone wear at the YMCA gym over the past month (Koestner works out 5x a week)- Hyper-parenting

American Women and Heels...

- Average American woman wears her heels 1 size too small- Get bunions and calluses- Get surgery for them - surgeons say they "will do anything to get women back into heels"- Surgery (removing part of your toe so you can continue wearing high heels) has an error rate fo 30% but people still do it - shows Extrinsic Motivation

Niemic, Ryan and Deci - Aspirations & Well-being at the end of UNI

- Measured the aspirations, depression, anxiety and life-satisfaction of university students in their last year- Measured the same things at follow up (1 year later)Finding: - E.M. in students was a greater predictor of goal attainment than I.M., but even when the goals were attained, their life satisfaction was not high, it decreased

Sheldon and Kreiger - Expressing Aspirations and Behvaiour

- "walking the walk" and "talking the talk" - Did a study with university students and 1 with 3000 lawyers- assessed their aspirations and then asked what they were doing to actively engage in those aspirationsFinding: there was a large gap in aspiration and action with I.M. - value enactment led to better prediction of well-being than value endorsement Sheldon says that there is no impact in what kind of aspirations you have unless you do things to actively engage with them

Why do the Amish have such low rates of depression?

- Small, conformist society, more pressure to enact the positive values they preach- They have a year of being able to do whatever they want "the Wilding", and after they are able to decide if they want to stay or leave-leave = shunned, stay = baptized- communities cannot talk about extrinsic motivations at all- they have all the aspects of intrinsic motivation BESIDES PERSONAL GROWTH - should not be glamorized many aspects of Amish culture are concerning... child beating, marrying young, shunning

Kassers recommendations...

1. We cannot abandon a focus on E.M. altogether because it has real life currency2. We must switch to having a balance in I.M. vs E.M. 3. We should be aware of the social, societal and aspects pushing us to engage in E.M. (e.g. Facebook, Instagram - we compare ourselves to others, makes us feel bad) - Koestner gave example about going to the park and having parents compare their kids to yours, this makes you focus on extrinsic motivation, wanting your kid to be the best

Tim Kassers book - The high price of materialism

About families who want a different way of life- Suggests that they should engage in practices like having dinner all together

Fredrick Ross - Example

General practitioner from Winnepeg who had told his patients that he would no longer treat them if they smoked- used fear and guilt to try to make people stop smoking, he claimed 10x more patients decided to quit smoking than switched doctors, odd because it goes against our research-Koestner believes that many people just did not follow up with the doc or lied about it, he also had an underrepresented proportion of smokers compared to the National smoking levels so maybe this contributed (had 10% smokers, national average was 25%)

Geoff Williams

Was an internal medicine doctor, began at age 22- Became frustrated because he noticed none of his patients were listening to his recommendations-Got a PhD in Human Motivation and came up with 2 big points1. Diagnosis and treatment is only 20% of the job of a doctor, the biggest part is being able to motivate patients2. The way doctors interact with patients may be interfering with their ability to motivate them - traditionally very superior/inferior type relationship- Developed a program to try to develop patient-client interactions - Video about smoking: was very calm and informative, did not try to scare people, was empathetic and understanding

Facts about smoking from Geoff Williams's video...

- 440,000 deaths due to smoking- smokers live 14.5 years less than non-smokers-70% want to stop smoking, 20-30% say they want to stop NOW- 40% of smokers make an attempt to stop - 20% of them quit using devices- good treatment options are a combo of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy

2 Importnat motivational factors you need...

1. Autonomous motivation2. Autonomous support - doctors can provide autonomy support by providing treatment options to the patient, by providing rationales to all the procedures they are prescribing...

Patients will more likely say their doctor supports their autonomy if...

1. Makes eye contact2. Asks open ended questions3. Listens4. Does not interrupt5. Encourages initiation and involvement6. Provides a rationale for their suggestions

What is the average time before a doctor interrupts a patient?

23 seconds

What is the National Cancer Associations recommendation?

Once a year, have a brief 3 minute motivational interview asking the 4Rs...1. Ask - are you smoking? Have you trying to quit smoking in the last year? Are you ready to quit smoking? (20% say yes)2. Advise - advice them to quit smoking if motivated to do so, if not ask "what would motivate you to quit smoking", this will make them think about reasons to stop3. Assist - help them stop smoking4. Arrange - arrange for a plan to stop smoking

How many times more does a smoker on average see the doctor?

3x more a year

Geoff Williams Study #1 - Smoking Cessation

Recorded the interaction between patient and doctor (who were trained in MI), saw if there was an interaction between the extent to which a doctor was autonomy supporting and the autonomy of the motivation of patient at 2 weeks to quit, and likelihood of not smoking at 6, 12, 18Measured autonomy support through seeing...1. if doctor encourages initiation and questions by patient2. takes patient perspective3. gives choices - measured whether patients quit smoking through chemical tests - measured autonomous motivation by asking patients why they are quitting (e.g. for themselves or for their doctor)Finding:- Patients of autonomy-supportive patients had more autonomous motivation after 2 weeks- 10% of patients quit smoking at 18 weeks follow up and most of them were patients of autonomous doctors

How many questions do men and women usually ask when going to the doctor?

men = 0 women = 4-5

Why do people not adhere to their medical prescriptions?

1. Sometimes side effects are worse from the drug than from the illness (short term) 2. Some medication requiers lifestyle changes patients are reluctant to adhere to (e.g. not drinking)3. They say they are too busy

FAQ about medical non-compliance

- 125,000 deaths a year due to medical non-compliance- 1/5 never fill the prescription- 1/3 never get a refill- 50% take medication improperly

Geoff Williams Study #2 - Medical Non-Compliance

Prospective Study - 14 daysUsed hypertension patients mostly (hard to keep taking hypertensive medications)DV: Looked at how many pills were taken after 14 daysFinding: the more autonomy-supportive the doctors were, the more likely they would adhere to taking their medication for the 2 weeks of the study

Geoff Williams Study #3 - Diabetes Management

- 8% of people in the U.S. have diabetes - looked at how people perceived their diabetic team - autonomy supportive vs controlling- looked at how this correlated with the patients adherence to a medical regimen - measured adherence via measuring glucose controlFinding: more autonomy supportive - better adherence

Meta-analysis of 184 studies show that Geoffs results are...

pretty consistent, more autonomy support = better adherence

Research by Nalini Ambady...

- Coded the non-verbal language of doctor-patient interactions in 30 doctors who were sued for malpractice vs 30 doctors who were not Finding: Nalini Ambady was able to figure out which doctors were sued and which ones were not based on the dominance and warmth the doctors showedSued doctors - more dominant, less warm- Even if you do not care about being autonomy supportive, regulatory agencies will

Motivational interviewing...

-an adjunct to any therapy-developed to treat people with alcoholism and other substance problems-engages with the fact that sometimes people do not even know they have a problem

Facts about Anorexia Nervosa

- 1/4 of the eating disorders (binge eating, bulimia and undifferentiated)- affects 1% of the population- Used to be only females but now in males 15%- Used to be white upper class problem but now is everywhere- Highly resistant to change, they take pride in losing weight (ego-syntonic)- used to be in people 15-16 now in 12-13, better in younger because it is easier to treat (older kids better at hiding) - genetic biological disorder Key features- Dramatic weight loss of failure to gain weight- people die of heart attack or starvation Additional features - anxiety and OCD co-morbidity, likely to develop anorexia 10x more if this runs in close. family

Motivational Issues to consider in treating Anorexia

1. Ambivalence and resistance2. Autonomy and control3. Introjection and compulsions (they are not the same person, eating disorder is sometimes referred to as Ed, to symbolize the distinction between yourself and the disorder)4. Structure - need to have structure

Steps of Family-Based Therapy for Anorexia (MOTIVATIONALLY)

1. Tell parents to stop feeling guilty2. Tell parents disorder is not the child - ed/eddie, anorexia is not volitional3. Teach parents how to weaken the compulsions - via implementing structures and scaffolding in order to iniciate re-feeding - Within one month, children are out of the danger zone

Actual steps for Family-Based Therapy for Anorexia

1. Return to previous/normal weight (parents actively involved)2. Gradual return to adolescent control of eating3. Exploration of autonomy and identity issues - heal from developmental trauma, re-kindle relationships, career etc. - Founder of FBT included motivational interviewing for the adolescent to feel as if they have more control, the addition of motivational interviewing focuses on teaching the parent active/motivational listening

Why does FBT work?

Exposure therapy - requires that the adolescent eats 3 meals a day, they will realize that they will not get fat when they eat and hopefully it will get easier and easier

Why does FBT not always work?

- Maladaptive thoughts sometimes remain in children- Children engage in safety behaviors that reinforce their eating disorder - Solution = add motivational training for children to be treated in a more volitional way

Who founded motivational interviewing?

Stephen Rollnick and William Miller - Patient-centered and directive - Builds on I.M. to help facilitate change in health behaviours

The Stages of Change Theory

- made for addiction but applicable to others - treatment depends which phase the client is in1. Precontemplation - want to motivate the patient to want to change2. Contemplation - strengthen I.M. to change, increase confidence in change3. Make an action plan4. Action phase5. Maintenance phase - #1 researched section right now, some people around patient may think they are cured but this phase can lead to relapse - there is a time that you do not have to be worried about patient after, for anorexia it is about 5-7 years 6. Relapse

Example of Motivational Components to treatment

Readiness Ruler- measure children's readiness to go to next phase of treatment and also measures self-efficacy

Pros of Motivational Interviewing

1. Suitable for mandated treatments2. Non-conformational3. Brief4. Trainable5. Compatible with individual differences

4 Principles of Motivational Interviewing

1. Expressing empathy2. Highlighting discrepancy *** (unique to motivational interviewing)3. Rolling with resistance4. Supporting self-efficacy

4 Techniques used in Motivational Interviewing (OARS)

1. Open-ended questions2. Affirmations3. Reflective listening 4. Summaries - help client understand what has been done

Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing in Adolescents

- It is increasingly being used for adolescence- works better for non-SUD (P =.20) than SUD (P=.30)- Studies for MI for ED does not show long term health benefits but it did show an increase in motivation to treat which could lead to long term health benefits

What is the environment of graduate school?

More collaborative and mastery oriented - Intensely evaluative, demanding high expectations-Koestners whole cohort (9 people) took an MPPI questionnaire which shows if you have any psychiatric problems and his whole cohort had clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety and paranoia (neurotic triad)- Due to being in a demanding program

Being a lawyer...

- 3-5x higher rates of depression - anxiety, SUD, depression, career dissatisfaction, divorce are all higher - there is evidence to show this occurs in law school as well

What kind of student in Law school uses mental health services the most?

Women law students

Who is Lawrence Kreiger?

A lawyer who is investigating the effects of the environment of law and law school on people. Claims that the environment distorts peoples ethics and morals and makes them act in unethical ways

The Paper Chase

Movie about law school- Often uses scoratic method - point people out and making them answer the question - Directly ranks you based on the rest of the class

Study looking at the motivational affects of law school

Longitudinal study - surveyed 600 students from different law schools from before first year until after they graduated law school, when they did the bar exam- High prestige law schools (slytherin) vs moderate prestige law schools (huffelpuff)Measures:1. Life goals: Intrinsic vs extrinsic2. Motivational goals in law school: intrinsic/extrinsic, introjected/identified3. Need satisfaction - autonomy, competence, relatedness4. Perception of autonomy Outcomes of interest1. GPA2. Rank on Bar exam3. Career choice - prestigious vs not prestigious4. Well-being Findings - Students who went into law school had higher I.M. and personal well-being BEFORE law school (Stereotype is wrong)-After 1 year of law school, increase in E.M. and decrease in WB, feel less autonomous, lower in need satisfaction-meditational analysis found that WB correlated with EM - Students who were more autonomously motivated at the beginning did better (grade wise) in law school- People who were autonomously motivated and did well tended to change their career goals to more prestigious positions (change to EM) -Students at high prestige law schools were more motivationally damaged-Students at high prestige law schools (52% passing) did worse on the bar than people from mediocre schools (78% passing)

How many students at Yale Law go to use medical services?


Advice from chpt 12 of Ed Decis book - What to do if you are stuck in a controlling environment?

1. Maintain your own autonomy - do things to promote your autonomy even in controlled situations (e.g. do a project you would like to work on)2. Promote your own development - find a support system3. Manage your own experience - find controlling elements of your environment and cancel them out