PSYC 471 Final

What are the three main approaches used to motivate children?

-rewards-praise-competition-All have risk especially in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

Koestner Example: Nephew Kevin-What was Koestner doing that was potentially detrimental to his nephew's well-being?

-Was only praising one child and praising them an immense amount in front of the other one who received no praise-Changed his approach

What are 4 reasons teachers give their students praise?

-create bonds-motivate-protect-manipulate

Koestner examples of praise:1. Basketball coach praise2. Accepted to school praise

1. Coach called him out after the game and told him eh played well, he was happy about this2. Called up to the front of the class and told he had been accepted into school, felt embarrassed-highlights how similar praise can have different effects

The impact of praise and how it is interpreted is determined by what 4 things?

1. type of relationship between praiser and praisee2. The type of praise3. Age, gender, and cultural backgrounds4. Public nature of praise

How is praise different from feedback?

-feedback is essential for us to know how we're doing-knowing how you did is different than receiving admiration

When does praise act as reinforcement?

-when it is contingent to behaviour (acts close in time to behaviour)-when it is specific to the behaviour and not vague-when it is credible, seems sincere, believable, and variable

When we code for praise occurence, what percentage of comments from teachers constitute as praise? What percentage is criticism?


What kind of praise is often given by teachers?

-praise that is non-contingent, non-specific, and in-credible

Was a relationship found between grades and praise?

No-found no relationship between praise and achievement-often found that children doing the worst receive the most praise as consolation

What are the 9 difference functions of praise?

1. Positive guidance2. Transitional ritual3. Balance for criticism4.Icebreaker or peace offering5. Consolation prize or as encouragement6. Vindication of predictions7. Attempted vicarious reinforcement8. Student-elicited stroking9. Spontaneous expression of surprise or admiration

What kind of teacher is most likely to give the first three kinds of praise?

A warm and likeable teacher

1. Positive Guidance

-making general approving comments-non-specific, non-contingent-might create rapport-harmless banter

2. Transitional ritual

-use praise as a transition to a new subject-not used for reinforcement

3. Balance for criticism

-Sandwich/oreo technique-compelment, then criticism, then complement

What two ways to people respond to the sandwich technique?

1. Positively2. Negatively: indirect praise leads to nothing happening, people just want you to be straight up with them

What do the next three kinds of praise deal with?

-Deals with who the children are-ex. oppositional children need a way to know that they are forgiven

4. Icebreaker or peace offering

-won't praise schoolwork but praise something physical-communicating indirectly that the child is out of the doghouse

5. Consolation prize or as encouragement

-for students who are slow learners-isn't actually good for the child because the other children see what the child is being praised for and see that it is actually pathetic-only works until about 4th grade

6. Vindication of predictions

-underachieving lazy child-jump on opportunity to praise when kid doess well, but essentially praising yourself for being so smart to predict their success

What two kinds of praise are the most damaging?

7. Attempted vicarious reinforcement8. Student-elicited stroking

7. Attempted vicarious reinforcemnt

-singling out one student that is doing well to make an example of how others should act-controlling, manipulative, damaging praise

8. Student-elicited stroking

-student fishing for praise-systematic praise-condition the teacher to give them praise-intrinsic motivation is sacrificed-most common form of praise in grade schools

9. Spontaneous expression of surprise or admiration

-rare praise, maybe once a week-only praise that has a positive effect-genuine praise, almost by accident

Brophy's conclusion about teacher praise

-students don't actually need praise in order to master the curriculum-teacher praise is a weak reinforcer, especially after age 8-teachers do not know how to praise properly

What recommendations are made about praise?

-praise less-think about complexity of praise-be more thoughtful and mindful

Deci, Koestner, Ryan, 1999 meta-analysis-what kind of motivation is increased with verbal rewards?-What is the problem with praise in the classroom?

-intrinsic motivation (but only if you're not expecting ti)-Praise is not unexpected, sacrifices competence and credibility

What does Koestner say about the praise we give kids? What is the most likely effect it is having?

-Most likely not having a positive or negative effect, undermining praise is rare, praise on average increase intrinsic m-suggestion: do some experiments and see if you can praise less or differently

What is Carol Dweck's advice for giving praise to children?

-focus on the process-talk to them about what they did-Koestner adopted this with his nephews

What do parents most likley want out of their child's ports involvement?

-want them to enjoy themselves-maintain intrinsic motivtivation

What is the peak time to start a child in a sport?

age 7

What percentage of children drop out of sports by age 12? Age 15? Why is this?

75%95%-this is because they focus on the talented players-kids get the message that they're not competent and so they don't want to continue playing

Koestner's brother and basketball

-brother didn't pick up on english as fast as Koestner so he couldn't play organized basketball (informal for him)-but he played longer and enjoyed it more than Koestner did

When was Koestner's interest in basketball abolished?

in grade 9 when he had to shoot in Madison square garden and missed every shot

Scanlon's model of sports commitment (predicts why you kept or lost commitment)

Function of 5 factors1. sports enjoyment2. involvement opportunities3. personal investments4. involvement alternatives5. social contraints

1. Sports enjoyment

-varies between people-more likely to stay if you enjoy

2. Involvement opportunities

-helps us to feel competent and skillful-are there valuable things

3. Personal investments

-more committed if we've made a lot of investment in it-Koestner thinks this might be negative because of extrinsic motivation

4. Involvement opportunities

-Learning about new sports can cause you to move away from other things

5. Social constraints

-ex. being invovled with a romantic partner, friendships-people trying to keep you in the sport-negatively affects

What was the point of the ballet competition clip?

-to show that competition is everywhere

Deci 1981-Block design puzzle (happy cubes)-designed experiments for engineering students-Eng student and confederate cam into the room and confederate let other person win-Either instructed to compete to win or compete to do their best-measured intrinsic motivation during free choice period

-shows that competition can undermine intrinsic motivation just the same as rewards can-Engineering students less likely to continue playing if they had competed to win

Csikz 1975-measured reasons for enjoying a sport-what was the number one reason for playing basketball?-why is this?-what were the other reasons?

-competition/measuring self vs. others-only way to experience flow is to enter a competition-development of personal skills, friendships, activity itself, enjoyment of experience/use of skills, measuring self against own ideals, prestige/glamour/rewards, emotional release

Reeve and Deci 1996-examined whether competition can sometimes decrease and sometimes enhance intrinsic motivation-what were the three conditions

1. competition/lose2. competition/controlling3. competition/informational

Manipulations (reeve and Deci 1996)-non-controlling competition-controlling competition

-try to outperform the other person by solving the puzzles faster-doesn't matter how fast or slow you solve, just win

Outcomes for intrinsic motivation-won + no emphasis on control-lost + no emphasis on control-won + focused on winning (controlled)-what are the two ways to undermine intrinsic motivation-what was the missing condition?

-high intrinsic motivation-low intrinsic-low intrinsic motivation-undermine competence or undermine control-missing a condition where you were controlled and made to lose

Chalip 1985-What kind of sport does he recommend and why?

-informal sport-better balance between challenges and abilities

Why are informal sports better for intrinsic motivation and well-being?

1. no difference between your team and the opposing team (no ingroup, outgroup dynamic)2. Everyone needs to be happy in order to continue the game3. Rules are modifiable and generated by the players themselves4. Conflicts are settled by argument, negotiation, and compromise5. Playing well and having fun really ARE more important than winning

Vallerand & Losier-wanted to see how sportsmanship would change-Quebec midget elite AAA hockey players competed survey at beginning and end of hockey season-What did competitive motivation predict at time one?

-predicted reduced sportsmanship at time 2-getting better means decreasing sportsmanship

Funnel Theory of intrinsic Motivation

-large pool of kids gets funnelled out so that few are remaining and those few are less sportsmanlike

What two things should be consider when we give unexpected rewards?

1. does it communicate competence2. does it make you feel controlled

What are the characteristics of singapore schools?

-more standards (standardized tests twice a year)-more homework-more emphasis on math and science-longer days and years-high stakes testing

US schools

-external control-extrinsic motivation-pressure-neglects the idea that children may be intrinsically motivated

KIPP-how much more were these students working-what is the focus?

-builds team spirit-for underprivileged kids-working 67% more than other kids-focus on intrinsic control

What does Finland schooling focus on?

-personalizing learning-emphasizing cooperation-supporting intrinsic motivation and initiative-want kids to grow and learn together-no competition-recess 4 times a day

What can teachers do to help children maintain their intrinsic motivation?

-encourage cooperation-contextualize and personalize learning-support autonomy

Johnson and Johnson 3 Goal Structures

-competition: people attain their goals when others do not-cooperative: people attain their goals only when others do also-individualism: people attain their goals without affecting the goal attainment of others-what they're doing is taking American research shown to work and applying it into practice

Johnson and Johnson Review Study-what did they find cooperation to be associated with

1. greater intrinsic motivation2. greater mastery of principles and concepts3. greater development of communication skills4. better attitudes toward classmates, including opposite sex and minorities5. better attitudes toward classmates, including opposite sex and minorities6. Higher self-esteem and mental health

How does contextualizing learning help in education?

-makes students understand why they should know something-makes it personally meaningful-most learning is decontextualized

What change in language can help personalize learning?

changing the to your

Autonomy support

-emphasis on intrinsic motivation-being attuned to the learner and taking the perspective of the student, using the student's interest

What is not autonomy support?

-rewards (symbolic and tangible)-praise-threats-competition-surveillance-evaluation-imposed goals

What happens to a child's intrinsic motivation as they go through school?

it consistently drops the further they go

Deci 1981-measured teacher's regulatory style and students' intrinsic motivation in October and may-Four ways the teachers could make students work harder1. assert control, reward, external control2. compete and compare groups3. informational, autonomy support4. cooperation, emphasize creativity-outcomes

-teachers who focused on autonomous motivation and cooperation had students reports:1. high intrinsic motivation2. feeling competent3. high self-esteem-kids benefited from this and were intrinsically motivated when they got to high school

What was the point of the CNN gymnastics film?

-demonstrate control rather than autonomy support

Behavioural indicators of controlling strategies

-emphasize evaluation-emphasize high standards-direct and give answers-emphasize competition

Behavioural indicators of autonomy supportive strategies

-listened more-encouraged conversations-allocated time for independent work-show interest in what they were learning

What does Finland give the teachers in order to teach to the best of their ability?

give them autonomy as well, can personalize their own teaching methods

Summary of teaching methods in Finland

-cooperative classroom structures-practical, relevant learning-autonomy for both students and teachers

What is homework associated with in elementary school> high school?

e: pressure, family conflict, reduction in intrinsic motivation, no evidence of better performanceH: can be associated with better performance

What is reeve's conclusion in terms of important contextual factors in a classroom?

-best classrooms are high in both structure and autonomy-clear expectations, optimal challenges, timely and informative feedback

What is the point of school in Finland?

-want kids to be ready for their adult lives-concerned about students' intrinsic motivation and less about performance on international tests

What is a common focus of immigrant parents?

Wanting their children to adopt the culture and values from their home countries

What are psychologists who work with younger people who are first gen immigrants most likely to recommend? What should they actually do?

-Encourage movement towards western values-should actually focus on internalizing and integrating parents' values

Cultural internalization

process by which cultural beliefs and practices are adopted by the individual and then enacted int eh absence of immediate external contingencies or constraints-parents present you with guideline/tradition, and you take it in so that you would do it even when your parents aren't there

Deci and Ryan's theory of internalization-4 steps

1. children are wiling and active participants in the process2. there are different processes by which internalization occurs-introjection-identification and integration3. These different internalization processes result in qualitatively different styles of self-regulation4. the social context influences which internalization process and regulatory style occurs-full internalization vs. partial internalization

A) IntrojectionB) Identification and integration

A) taking in a value or regulatory process but not accepting it as one's own-forced to take in guidelines and behavioursB) Identification and integration: fully assimilating a regulation with one's core sense of self

What does internalization depend on?

-what the parents do and how they introduce the thing(authoritarian won't work)

Up, over, no no no example of introjection

-child climbing out of crib1. talk to them about how climbing they could hurt themselves2. buy them something so they can't climb out-number 1 will encourage internalization because you've taught the child something personal

Downie et al. 2004-the degree to which immigrants fully internalize their host and heritage cultures will importantly relate to their adjustment (hypothesis)-assessed mcgill students-Asked how many of them pursue specific cultural traditions, practices, and values for the following reasons?1. external2. introjected3. identified-What were the key results?

-significant association between bi-cultural integration and global well-being-results confirmed by peer reports-better affect when interalized things were aligned and in harmony

Downie 2007-why are some immigrants better able to internalize and integrate their multiple cultures-hypothesis: parental autonomy support around cultural issues will promote autonomous internalization-measured parental autonomy support (asked about dating members of other cultures etc.)-Study 1: immigrants to Montreal resutls-study 2: chinese malaysia sojourners to US, Can, UK, Aus-conlcusion

study 1:-autonomy-suuport was significantly assocaited with autonomuuus internaliaztion fo heritage culture-better well ebing-internalization of host culture was sig associatedw ith better well-being-results confirmed by peer reportsStudy 2:-autonomy support associated with autonomous internalization fo heritage cultures-internalization of heritage cultures associated with better adjustmentConclusion-experiences of autonomy are critical to the successful adaptation of immigrants between they promote successful cultural internalization and integration

Cultural relativism-what do Ryan and Deci say about some cultural practice

principle that an individual's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture-some cultural practices are antagonistics to what it means to be human and therefore can't be identified with or integrated, can only be forced on you

What are the four dimensions of culture?

-individualist vs collectivistpriorities given to goals and preferences vs. priority given to needs, norms, and goals of group-egalitarian vs. hierarchicalemphasis on equality or interchangeability among people vs. emphasis on hierarchical and subordinate social relations

What two of the four dimensions can't be internalized?

egalitarian and hierarchical aren't equal in how they can be internalized-you can only be helpless to tradition-hierarchical cultures are the hardest to assimilate

What is Deci and Ryan's take home message about culture?

not all cultural practices acan be internalized, hierarchical being the hardest to assimilate

What two demographics are at the highest risk for poor well-being?

-lowest SES and highest SES

How did Martha Farah get interested in this area of study?

-her daughter and babysitter's daughters were the same age-when they were young there was no difference but as they got older there were dramatic differences between them

What does it mean to be poor accordinig to Martha Farah?

-don't own home-move frequently-single parent-live with relatives-public assistance-food stamps-charity clothes-exposure to violence and drugs-the Apalachia film displayed this

The Real-Age phenomenon

-chronological age and real-age have some discrepanciesex. being 30 but looking 40

What is it about being poor that puts you at a disadvantage?-what are the three components of a healthy brain

-needs are not being met-physical, psychological needslack of modelling behaviour and interaction with the child1. working memory2. executive functioning3. language abilities

What causes IQ differences in poor people?

-allostatic load-yrs of living in poverty-brain functioning

Self Determination Theory-what two growth processes are involved-what are the three necessary conditions-what differnece in parenting styles affects the children of low SES or high SES children

growth-intrinsic motivation-internalizationconditions-connectedness-competence-autonomous-under-parenting vs. over-parenting


-a process in which teachers model how to solve a problem, and then step back, offering support as needed

How much lower is IQ if you were in a poor household?

about 15 IQ points lower

Intellectual ping pong

a way to interplay between the child and adult in a structured way, a form of scaffolding

Families and development of expertise-what are the three critical features

1. child-centered2. achievement oriented3. responsibility training

Time spent reading with families (Hart and Risley 1995)-number of words over the week for pro, working class, welfare-by age 5, how sophisticated was vocab

Pro: 45 millworking class: 26 millwelfare: 13 mill-by age 5, already achieved vocabulary as someone living in poverty in professional families

Great Smokey Mountains Study of Youth-longitudinal study-casino opened and everyone made a royalty-20% of sample got an extra 10000 per year-what happened to behavioural symptoms when children were moved out of poverty?-What was the mediating mechanism?-What was the relationship between how long you were in poverty and brain funcitoning in later years?-Conclusion

-there was a reduction in behavioural symptoms-Mediating mechanism was the amount of time parents had to supervise their children (parents out of poverty had more time to supervise their children-direct relationship, mediated by allostatic load, physiologicla stress response-an economic shift can allow for better parenting

What are the motivational risks of growing up in a wealthy family?

-over-parenting-controlled motivation-demanding and pressuring goals from which you feel alienated-parents build scaffold but to's a perfect scaffold-not feeling volitional

Pre-school enrolment and wealthy parents

-wealthy parents over the top on their emphasis and focus o getting into these schools-focused on child or yourself?


feelings of self worth depend on certain levels of good performance-can come from child's achievements (especially competition and responsibility involved)

Grolnick 2002-your job is to ensure your child learns to write a poem and performs well-what was parents' mood contingent on?

-parent mood was contingent on how well their child did (wealthy neighbourhood, involved)-ego-involvement is triggered

Luthar 2003: The culture of affluence-large samples of teens from wealthy vs. middle class backgrounds-depression, anxiety, substance abuse-who had higher rates of these?-what did the pattern of substance abuse suggest?-what were the two mediators?-what is expected of wealthy children?

-wealthy children did-self-medicating-living in a wealthy neighbourhood (pressure to achieve) and isolation from parents-expected to have good friends, high achievement, high across the board

Key features of hyper-parenting-what percentage of tutoring in the states is to wealthy families who want to get ahead

1. ego-involvement in child's goals2. micro-managing child's development3. over-scheduling of enrichment activities-have to be a winner or you're nothing-75%

Core values of the simple amish life

-community and family-humility-the religious life

What are the depression rates in the amish community?

-close to zero-no difference between males and females

Kasser and Ryan 1993-what did they find was associated with lower well-being?

-extrinsic focused goals-focus on reward, praise, and competition

Kasser's framework 2002-what do extrinsic aspirations depend on?-what do intrinsic aspirations depend on?

-depend on contingent reaction of others and are typically engaged in as a means to an end-expressive of natural growth tendencies and are likely to satisfy basic psychological needs

Aspiration index

measure what kind of aspirations you have-rate importance of certain aspirations-on average, higher on the intrinsic than extrinsic

Kasser and Ryan study 1-community adults aged 18-79 completed surveys of aspirations and well-being-self-actualization-vitality-depression-physical symptoms-Results

-the more you valued intrinsic aspirations, the better you did on mental health surveys-high self-actualization-high vitality-low depression-low physical symptoms

Mean aspirations among german and americans-what values do they have-what focus-what had better well-being-self-actual, anxiety, depression, phsyical symptoms

-extrinsic values-intrinsic values had better well-being-higher self-actual, low depression, low anxiety, low physical symptoms

Kasser and Co. 2014 meta-analysis-144 studies from all continents-52% from N.A.-what was the mean effect size of extrinsic aspirations with distress?

-r=0.20-materialism: links between your aspirations and your mental health

What percentage of students rated wealth the most important in 1980? in 2010?


What did Carver and Baird 1998 hypothesize about pursuing aspirations?

-the reason for pursuing an extrinsic or intrinsic aspiration matters more than the aspiration itself

Extrinsic-introjected reasons

-focused on other people

Intrinsic-identified reasons

-focus on the self"it would be fun/satisfying

Results of Carver and Baird 1998-which kind of aspiration reported more self actualization

-an intrinsic aspiration (community involvement vs. financial success)

What happens if we break these aspirations into extrinsic-introjected vs. intrinsic-identified reasons?

-more self-actualization for intrinsic-identified, regardless of extrinsic or intrinsic aspiration

Weinstein and Ryan 2010: Motivation and Prosocial Behaviour-how the service provider feels and how the person receiving feels (what did these depend on)

-if you're volunteering volitionally, you and the person feels good-if you're volunteering because you have to, you feel bad and the person can tell

Does it matter whether you achieve your aspirations? Niemic, Ryan, Deci 2009-200 young adults contacted 1 year after graduation-assessed aspirations, well-being-follow-up at 1 year to assess attainment of aspirations, need satisfaction, and changes in well-being-what happened to people who valued extrinsic and became extrinsic?

-worse well-being outcomes

What were Kassers recommendations on aspirations?

-we need to outweigh extrinsic aspirations with intrinsic motivations-be aware of societal, social factors, and personal that drive us toward materialistic values

Ed Deci's fundamental question

Why do people stop pursuing activities that formerly seemed to be highly self-rewarding

What is intrinsic motivation

the natural propensity to engage one's interests and exercise one's capacities

What was Koestner's example of reading the Harry Potter books meant to exemplify?

-intrinsic motivation in an activity

What is a critical year for inspiring intrinsic motivation in reading? What else does this predict?

third grade-predicts whether you'll be successful or get in trouble with the law

What happened to Sophie in 4th grade?

-her teacher introduced a reading program in 4th grade-her intrinsic motivation for reading became extrinsic motivation

Lepper et al, 1973-free choice paradigm-4 year olds and an art activity-control vs. reward condition (good player award)-results-when did they observe this change?-What third control group did they add?

-children who were in the experimental condition were less likely to draw during the free choice period-found same effect 1 week later-Found that something had already changed while drawing the pictures, had people rate the quality of the drawing, experimental focused on quantity, control focused on quality-were getting a reward but they didn't know that, intrinsic motivation untouched

Moderating factors of intrinsic motivation development

-expectancy-salience (the more obvious the reward, the more intrinsic motivation drops)-kind of reward (but all can have a negative effect, even praise)

What was the primary finding in the Koestner meta-analysis?

-undermining intrinsic motivation has the highest effect on young children

Why do we experience less enjoyment in an activity when rewards are involved?

-less challenge-children relate to each other better when there's no rewards-cognitive flexibility and creativityspontaneity and expressiveness-positive emotional tone in relating to others

What are other underminers of intrinsic motivation?

-threats of negative consequences-surveillance-deadlines-evaluation-goal imposition-competition

Cognitive evaluation theory

1. IM varies with perceived autonomy2. IM varies with perceived competence3. External events can have 1 of 3 meanings-information-controlling-amotivating

Harter Research-surveys of children's curiosity/interest-does child work to satisfy own interest and curiosity or does child work to satisfy teacher, get marks and grades?-gave questionnaires-findings

-as you continues through the grades, intrinsic motivation decreased significantly

Why does intrinsic motivation drop so significantly at junior high?

-more evaluative-more competitive-more impersonal-more formal

What consequences did these changes in motivation have?

-lower academic performance

What about children who do not like to read? what is the common assumption?

using rewards for these children will help them read

Instructional practices that promote reading motivation (and comprehension)?

-encouraging choice-providing interesting, relevant texts-facilitating social interaction around books-using hands-on activities to spark interest

Allington et al 2010-addressing summer reading setback among economically disadvantaged elementary students-what is the summer slide-1000 1st graders assigned to book fair condition-500 children in control group get puzzle books-variable: reading achievement 3 years later-results

-underprivileged children have a significant drop in reading level during the summer-positive effects of given children books to read -quality of books didn't matter-better than going to summer school

How to find your intrinsic motivation for reading?

-don't judge yourself for what you're reading -just start reading something-try different formats-make an implementation plan

What is perfectionism?

-a personality disposition that can be characterized as setting ridiculously high standards for performance, a lot of self-criticism-highly achievement focused

What do the two kinds of perfectionism differ in?

-differ in terms of the outcomes of this hyper-achievement focused personality

Self-critical perfectionism

-striving for perfection due to perceived external standards-harsh self-evaluations, guilt, fear of loss of approval-external pressure

Personal standards perfectionism

-more common-self-motivated-striving for perfection due to self-imposed standards-without harsh self evaluation or hypersensitivity to criticism

Stoeber and Otto 2006-controlling for overlap between two kinds of perfectionism-what was PSP correlated with?

-positive outcomes-not correlated with negative outcomes (depression)-positively associated with positive outcomes and negatively associated with negative outcomes

Conclusion about controversy surrounding partialling?

people can show PSP without SCP and partialling is a valid and predictable method

How does perfectionism develop?

-affects us well into adulthood-highly prevalent -have poor outcomes for SCP

How do we measure perfectionism?

-questionnaires-coded certain items for PSP and SCP-retrospective

Parents role in perfectionism-social expectations model

-having parents with high expectations: PSP-having highly critical parents: SCP-retrospective research shows this

Harvey, Moore, & Koestner 2017-203 children aged 8-12-no difference between 8 and 12 year olds on perfectionism-measures: self-reports on present experiences-results

-found that parental expectations did predict personal standards, criticism predicted self-critical

Which perfectionism predicts higher academic achievement?

PSP-SCP is unrelated to academic achievement

Which model did this research support?

the social expectations model

SCP is a risk factor for what adolescents?

affluent adolescents

Academic association so perfectionism-PSP-SCP

PSP-higher exam performance-better individual grades and higher GPA-invest more hours in studying-higher reasoning test scoresSCP-often negatively associated with academic performance-sometimes SCP do better in actual grades-less willing to seek help due to non-disclosure of imperfection

Athletic Associations of perfectionism

PSP-higher overall performanceSCP-athlete burnout-risk to athletes' motivation, self-esteem, health and athletic development

Mental Health Associations of perfectionism

PSP-higher life satisfaction and well-being-lower levels of maladaptive coping and psychopathologySCP-impaired psychological functioning-lower life satisfaction and well-being-anxiety, eating disorders and OC thoughts and depression-risk factor for suicidal tendencies, self-harm-associated with successful suicide attempts in adolescents

Responses to failure and perfectionism-fear of experiencing shame/embarrassment-affect after failure or success-responses of these before knowing outcome-responses after knowing failure or success

PSP-negative association -PA after success-negatively associated-positive association after success, think about how they can learn from itSCP-positive association-NA after failurepositively associated-negative association after failure, feel horrible when they fail

What kind of goals are PSP individuals most likely to set?

performance approach goals

Powers et al. 2011-5 studies-self-reports + peer reports + objective measure of observed weight loss over 6 months-results-Results in terms of self-efficacy, flow, and implementation plans

-consistent negative association of SCP with goal progress and positive association of PSP when controlling for overlap -SCP is negatively related to goal progress and PSP is positively associated with goal progress-PSP higher implementation and flow-SCP less self-efficacy, flow, and implementation plans

Affect and perfectionism-in general-affect over the holiday

SCP-negative association positive affect, positive association negative affect-feeling worse after finals than they did during-more academic stress and interpersonal stress over the holidayPSP-heightened positive affect and lower negative affect over the holidays-able to let go of stress-generally, PSP often unrelated to affect

Motivation and perfectionism-back to work effects-why?

-PSP improved affect upon returning to school, happier on Monday than the weekend-SCP worse affect upon returning to school -PSP have autonomous motivation, experiencing more flow

Rumination and perfectionism-what two kinds of rumination-what kind of perfectionists use which kind of rumination

-abstract/evaluative vs. concrete/experiential-evaluative makes you emotionally vulnerable, experiential helps with problem solving-PSP: experiential-SCP: evaluative

What kind of theories of intelligence do the different types of perfectionists have?

PSP-incremental theorist, thinks there's room for improvementSCP-entity theorist, intelligence is fixed

Self-esteem and perfecitonism

-self-esteem is often contingent on achievements in perfectionism (SCP)

Take home messages of perfectionism lecture

-excessive achievement focus can be bad but PSP can be good-focus on learning from failure-avoid contingent self-esteem on performance

Dr. Ross (smoking)-what does doctor Koestner have to say about this forceful method?

-either quit or get another doctor-almost all attention was favourable-a doctor willing to take a stand-had only 3 patients require their files be transferred to another doctor-doctor not encouraging intrinsic motivation or internalization, only extrinsic motivation

Dr. Geoff Williams Story-what did he do to revolutionize his practice?

-realized he wasn't able to motivate his patients very well, went back to school to get a PhD in motivational psychology

What are two key motivational concepts

autonomous motivation-feeling a sense of volition and choice about a goal you're pursuing-less conflict with other goals-not feeling controlledautonomy support-how the doctor or health care professional related to the patient-Williams offers this kind of positive motivation

Specifics of autonomy support

-eye contact-open-ended questions-listen carefully-do not interrupt-encourage initiation and involvement-provide a rationale for your suggestions-always asking "does this make sense to you, will you be able to do this

Study 1: Smoking Cessation -230 patients-doctor has been trained briefly in NCA brief motivational interview re smoking-advise, assist, arrange (follow-up)-motivation assessed 2 weeks later, check ups at 6, 12, 18 months-self-reports validated with chemical tests-doctor interviews were tape-recorded and coded for autonomy-what counted as autonomous motivation

-encourages questions and initiation by patient, takes the patient's perspective, provides choices

What was the point of the Jack Nicholson clip?

-to show autonomy support in doctors

On average, how many questions do men/women ask in a medical interview?

-men: 0-women: 6

Measured patient motivation 2 weeks after meeting with the doctor:-autonomous vs. controlled-smoking results

-10% of participants had quit smoking continually through 18 months-autonomy support-->autonomous motivation-->abstinence

Study 2: Medication Non-compliance-125,000 deaths per year in US-1 in 5 never fill out prescription-1 in 3 never get refill-over 50% take prescription improperly-why is this?-results (dependent measure: 14 day prospective pill count)

-illness causes fewer symptoms than meds-incapable of changing habits-demands of work and family life-perception of autonomy support-->autonomous motivation-->higher levels of adherence

Study 3: Diabetes management-included physiological outcome measures-epidemic of diabetes related to sedentary lifestyle and the kinds of foods we eat-how doctors interact with their patients will determine the kind of motivation they have

-perception of autonomy support-->autonomous reasons-->better glucose control

Ambady research on malpractice law-suits-what is another benefit of being autonomy supportive

-some doctors get sued a lot and this is not a matter of competence-doctos who don't get sued at those who have a gentle listening tone, autonomy supportive

What is the youngest occurence of anoriexia?


What did Maudsley propose as a new therapy for anorexia?

family based therapy showing the importance of motivational interviewing

What well-meaning school programs "caused" an increase in eating stories in school age children?

-school-based healthy living programs-kids more sedentary, wanted to intervene to get them thinking about healthy eating and living-some schools would inspect the lunches you brought to school-calorie monitoring

Motivational interviewing

-approach is empathic and non-directive, but want to guide the patient a little bit-patient-centered, directive counselling style that builds on autonomous motivation to facilitate change in health-related behavioursluable reasons for coming to therapy

In what area was this technique first derived?

-in addiction-shows that ambivalence is a human state although we often pathologize it

What does motivational interviewing use as a starting point?

-uses readiness as a starting point

Stages of change model of motivational interviewing

1. pre-contemplation: increased awareness of need to change (give info and encourage them to explore)2. contemplation: motivate and increase confidence in ability to change3. relapse: negotiate a plan (what would work best for them)4. action: reaffirm commitment and follow up (watch out for withdrawal, make patient aware of what they could experience)

Advantages of motivational interviewing-cycle, ambivalence-mandated treatments-brief-trainable-non-confrontational

-always aware of where you are in the cycle, assumes a level of resistance and denial-suitable for mandated treatments (court-referral, family-referral)-brief (few as 2 or 3 sessions, something primary doctors can do with their patients)-may professionals can be trained to carry these out-encourages autonomy

4 Principles of motivational interviewing

-expressing empathy-developing discrepancy (where the person is vs. where they want to be-rolling with resistance-supporting self-efficacy

4 technique used in motivational interviewing: OARS

-open-ended questions-affirmations-reflective listening-summaries

when using reflections and affirmations and summaries, where should the emphasis be placed?

-emphasize change goal rather than just a review of what's keeping them stuck

What are the goals of motivational interviewing?

-develop discrepancy-decrease ambivalence-let clients decide on their own to change-enhance readiness to change

Meta-analyses of 72 studies: does motivational interviewing work?-what is efficacy enhanced by-how does it work-who does it work better with-what is the best predictor of therapist success?

-works in small doses, large effects-efficacy enhanced by negativity, works better with angry and resistant people, works by reducing negativity-therapists differ in their efficacy-empathy

Why would motivational interviewing work well with adolescents?

1. supports role development2. non-confrontational3. promotes autonomy4. deals with ambivalence-adolescents may specifically require this kind of approach because they require independence and autonomy

Where does motivational interviewing fit into treatment of anorexia-Maudsley FBT stages

1. return to previous weight2. gradual return to adolescent control of eating3. gradual exploration of autonomy and identity issues-motivational interviewing fits into the second step-coach the parents on how to use motivational interviewing-increase autonomy in order to progress to stage 2

Introjection and compulsions-how do we get around this?

-externalize the disorder-give it a name-externalize the anorexic voice-separate the child from the disorder

Koestner and clinical psychology, what was this demonstrating

how all of them had a predisposition to mental illness and the program then exacerbated this

What is the riskiest profession?

lawyer-mental illness high-more likely to be dissatisfied with their career-divorce rates high-suicide rates high-female law students have the hardest time

What were Sheldon and Krieger interested in?

-interested in examining the way law schools operate

Krieger's hypothesis

-intense pressure and competitive success norms reorient students away from positive personal interests and values and towards rewards and more image based values, leading to a loss of self-esteem, life satisfaction and well-being

Characteristics of law school

-hierarchical, reward focused, competition focused-excessively abstract, analytical teaching-teaching practices are isolative and intimidating

Examining the motivational effects of law school-follow 600 students-one top-rated school, one low tank school-assessed motivational, academic, and well-being over 3 year period -what two categories do law students typically fall under

1. high status2. service related

Did it prove to be a self-selection process?-compared law students to other students at the beginning of law school

-no, people applying for law school are especially happy and satisfied in their lives before they start law school-especially idealistic-exemplary in terms of their motivational context

First year law school-what happens to well-being-what happens to aspirations-what happens to need satisfction-did these ever go back to normal?

-well-being drops-shift from highly intrinsic to highly extrinsic-need satisfaction goes down, not feeling competent, related, or autonomous-no, they never return to baseline

Do these variables relate to GPA and career direction?-what predicted better GPA

-autonomy-these people were more likely to change their goals because they were told they could get the highest paying jobs

Does the motivational climate of the school affect well-being?

-yes, school differences were mediated by perceived autonomy support and need satisfaction

What are the results comparing Slytherine school and Hufflepuff school?

Hufflepuff students did better on the bar

Are high prestige lawyers happier in the future?-sample of 10000-compared aspirations

-10-15 years into your career, making less money means you'll be happier, have lower rates of depression, anxiety, and divorce

What percentage of Yale law students seek mental health services?


What do you do if you find yourself in a controlled environment?

-be autonomously motivated-promote one's own development (find teachers and ask them questions)-manage your own experiences ( be aware of emotions and behaviours)