Module 1- TYPICAL AND DISORDERED COMMUNICATION

we communicate to

make contact or to reach out to others and to satisfy our needs to share feelings and information; it is a two way give and take

sociolinguistics

variables that affect the success or failure of communication

examples of sociolinguistics

cultural identity, setting, and participants.

Even when two people come from the same language background "perfect" communication is rare. This is because...

we may differ on variety of factors such as age, socioeconomic status, geographical background, ethnicity, gender, and ability.

T/F there is a single "correct" way to communicate

False

cultural humility

being able to learn about other dialects and understanding the norms of their linguistic communities. being objective and sensitive to client's culture.

communication environment

includes not only the location in which communication occurs, but also the people involved, the event in which they are involved. Often the communication event is the context.

communication takes place in many forms and can...

involve one or a combination of our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch

The primary vehicle of human communication

language

the primary means of language expression for most individuals.

speech

Language

socially shared code that is used to represent concepts. The code uses symbols to represent concepts in rule-governed ways.

characteristics of language

Social-shared, Rule-governed, Arbitrary (but agreed upon), Generative, Dynamic

language components

form, content, use

content domains

semantics

form domains

phonology, morphonology, syntax

use domains

pragmatics

5 domains of language

pragmatics, syntax, morphonology, syntax, phonology, semantics

Phonology

-sound system of the language-Smallest unit of language that overlays the meaning to motoric movements of speech-IPA e.g., /sup/ = "soup

Morphology

-smallest unit of language that expresses meaning-Bound-free or root words vs. Bound (dog vs. dogs; pass/passed)Ex-Prefixes and suffixes (pretest, softly)

Syntax

sentence level structure of language that marks relationships between rules and ideas.

Semantics

the meaning of the language consists of 2 types ofinformation:lexical and conceptual

lexical

/d/ /o// g/

conceptual

parks, wags, tail, four legs

pragmatics

how we use language (form and content)Cultural pragmatics

examples of pragmatics

Intent; request; quality of expression; topic initiation, maintenance,shifting, closure; eye contact; body gestures, intonation

expressive language

speaking, writing, texting, emailing

receptive language

Understanding ReadingReading text messages Reading emails

speech

the process of producing the acoustic representations or sounds of languageArticulationFluencyVoice

2/3s of our messages are...

nonverbal (Zeuschner, 1997)

Artifacts

d├ęcor, car, clothing, music, art, architecture, furniture, etc. "Kinesics" way we move our bodies, "body language

Proxemics

study of physical distance between people - reflects relationship and is influenced by age and culture

Chronemics

effect of time on communication--Cultural, status, work ethic, etc

Communication is generally thought to be disordered when it deviates from the community standards sufficiently enough that it:

a) interferes with the transmission of messages(b) stands out as being unusually different, or(c) produces negative feelings within the communicator (Shames & Anderson, 2002).

ASHA (1997) defines communication and related disorders as disorders of:

-Speech (artic, voice, & fluency)-Orofacial/myofunctional patterns-Language (phonology, morphology, syntax, content, use)-Swallowing-Cognitive communication -Hearing & balance

T/F Variations in communication are impairments

false

Dialects are...

differences that reflect a particular regional, social, cultural, or ethnic identity and are NOT disorders of speech or language (ASHA, 1993). They are legitimate, rule governed varieties of English.

CULTURAL COMPETENCE/SENSITIVITY

It is every clinician's responsibility to provide services in a non-biased, nonjudgmental, and ethical manner.requires an awareness of each person's customs, beliefs, and ethical manner.

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CULTURALLY COMPETENT SLP (4)

Simultaneous appreciation of cultural patterns and individual variation Engagement in cultural self-scrutinyEmbracing principles of evidence-based practiceSeeking to understand language disorders within the client's social context

Approximately ___% of the US population have communication disorders.

17

Prevalence

# or %, age of people within a specified population who have a particular disorders or condition at a given point in time.