CJ Notes Chapter 1

social order

the condition of a society characterized by social integration, consensus, smooth functioning, andthe lack of interpersonal and institutional conflict.

crime

conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction forwhich there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse.

individual rights

the rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S. Constitution, especiallythose found in the Bill of Rights (first ten amendments).

Individual rights advocate

one who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.

public order advocate

one who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to publicsafety, the interest of society should take precedence over individual rights.

justice

the principal of fairness; the ideal of moral equity.

criminal justice

in the strictest sense, the criminal (penal) law, the law of criminal procedure, and the array ofprocedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law.

consensus model

a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the system's components work togetherharmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice.

conflict model

a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the system's components function primarily toserve their own interest.

warrant

in a criminal proceeding, a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer toperform a specified act and affording the officer protection from damages if he or she performs it.

booking

a law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an entry into detentionafter arrest and identifying the person, the place, the time, the reason for the arrest, and the arresting authority.

bail

the money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of aperson from legal custody.