Phil final

What are the first three background assumptions

Elenchus (socratic Method), Sincerity argument, craft analogy


The Socratic method of eliciting truth by question and answer, especially as used to refute an argument. It is supposed to show someone that they hold contradictory beliefs. Premises, claim, conclusion.

What is Thrasymachus's position on morality?

Thrasymachus believes that morality is the advantage of the stronger. Good leaders make the rules and to be moral, their subjects is a social construct

Socrates response to Thrasymachus

Leaders are not always moral.

Thrasymachus amends argument

A ruler cannot make mistakes. They think the laws they make are to their advantage.

Ergon Argument

Every object has a function. Every object has a virtue that enable it this function. If it performs its function virtuously, then it is moral and happy

Ergon argument critique

dull knife

Explain the distinction between mind-dependence and mind-independence.

Mind dependence: Morality is observer dependentMind independence: Morality is observer independent

Glaucons three types of value

Instrumental- what it does (hammer, money)Intrinsic- valuable for own sake (art, education)Hybrid- something like health

Glaucon's Challenge

Socrates hasn't convinced us that it is better in every way to be just than unjust

Explain Glaucon's Natural History

Right to self preservationRight to warendeavor peace; otherwise enjoy the full advantages of war (the right to all things).Second law of nature: if peace looks possible seek a contract to set aside the right of nature (=absolute liberty).

Know Glaucon's "Test Case" argument. Make sure to explain how intrinsic value is involved

Immoral expert-> great life-> surface moral, core immoral-> no intrinsic valueunfortunate moralist-> miserable life-> surface immoral, core moral -> intrinsic value

What is the second set of background assumptions?

Synecdoche- Part/whole Ergon Argument Sublation- Overcome but preserved (app update)

Which two principles govern the ascetic state?

Principle of Specialization- each person only does one thing with efficiency and expertise Unique Aptitude Principle- Each person does the job for which they are naturally selected

background assumption in the construction of the ideal state


philosophical dog & ideal state

gently to friends, wise, fierce to enemies, passionaterepresents auxiliary / soldierobedient to owner (guardian)

3 educational tiers

music, gymnastics, storytelling

Which principles does Socrates invoke to restrict which stories can be told?

- Depict god as he really is (no bad light)- God is not a shapeshifting wizard

What is the myth of metals? Why is it an important "noble lie" for the state? How is it linked to the Unique Aptitude Principle?

Gold - rulerSilver- auxiliary Bronze- Workereveryone treats each other as family each person knows their status

Is Plato someone that thinks that one's character is shaped by nature and/or nurture? Explain with detailed examples

Both. UAP, noble lies

Identify the features of a totalitarian regime. Which are present in Plato's state? Explain.

- Censorship (storytelling of gods)- Nationalism (one mother)- Control private sphere (sharing women, who's my kid)- Eugenics (breeding)

Morality at level of state

do your job or create chaos and be immoral

moral at level of psyche

wisdom, courage, self disciplineperform your function virtuously


when what is (or should be) familiar and connected comes to seem foreign or disconnected- Alienation from products of labor - Alienation from other human beings - Alienation from the act of labor

Simile of the Sun

compares the "ultimate good"/reality with the sun, (sunlight = the Good, truth/knowledge/understanding is like the sun/the Good). Sun makes visible things known Enables physical things to exist

Image of the Line

Cognitive power2- perception/ reflection of models4- conventional wisdom/ models of things 4- scientific thought/ things8- Wisdom/understanding/ the forms


State- Guardians, Auxiliary, workersEducational- music, gymnastics, storytellingPsyche- Reason, passion, appetite

Plato's critique of democracy

It will result in tyranny because the leaders will be selfish and the subjects will thing they can do a better job and overtake him


a reservoir of unconscious energy that, is not directly accessible- our subconscious


Fully accessible, conscious, thinking self"executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Satisfies the id's desires


Both. Represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience)