Biology 2200 Study set

What are the features of a Prokaryotic cell

Prokaryotic cells lack a membrane bound nucleus(meaning they lack organelles), they have a flagella, fimbriae, cell wall, ribosomes, cytoplasm, chromosomal DNA. Smaller in size compared to eukaryotic cell.

What are the features of eukaryotic cell

Ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, Golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole, nucleus, nucleolus, Mitochondria.

Difference between plant and animal cells

Plant cells have larger vacuoles, a cell wall, and chloroplasts

Where do all cells from earth today come from

all cells on earth today come from a common ancestral prokaryote

All living these have these in common

Biological molecules- Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Hydrophobic plasma membrane, Aqueos cytosol, Central dogma( flow of information from molecule to molecule) Use the same genetic code.

Cell division for Prokaryotes

Binary fission or the splitting between two cells

Cell division for eukaryotes

Meiosis and Mitosis

Which are the only cells that form multicellular organisms

Eukaryotes

Cell

The basic unit from which a living organism is made

Prokaryote

Unicellular organism is made up of domain archaea and domain bacteria. No membrane bound nucleus which means no organelles

eukaryote

Multicellular organism divided into 4 kingdoms, composed of various organelles and a membrane bound nucleus

Multicellular

multiple cells

unicellular

one cell

Bacteria

unicellular organism that lives everywhere

Archaea

unicellular organism that lives in extreme conditions

Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

Organelle

little organs that have specific functions like golgi apparatus and mitochondria

ribosome

large macromolecule composed of RNAs and Proteins. Proteins are synthesized

Conserved

Remain the same, not changed much evolutionary.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid made up of nucleotides that stores genetic information. Double Stranded

RNA

ribonucleic acid- single stranded nucleic acid that plays an important role in protein development

Protein

Macromolecule built form amino acids that provides cells with they shapes

Macromolecules

large complex molecules- Nucleic acids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids.

Nucleic Acids Polymer-

nucleotides

Proteins Polymer

Amino Acids

Carbohydrates Polymer

monosaccharides

Lipids polymer

triglycerides and diglycerides

True or False Macromolecules are common to all cells

True

Structures that are common to all cells

Hydrophobic plasma membrane, ribosome[RNA+Proteins] aqueous cytosol- liquid matrix that is found inside cells

Processes common to all cells

Transcription, Translation, DNA Replication

What does it mean to say that genetic code is the same between all living things

Genetic code is the universal language for all living thing things, Genes and gene sequences can be different

What is different from cell to another in the same organism

Gene expression makes it different

What are the organelles

Nucleus, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, golgi apparatus, Plasma membrane, Smooth ER, Rough ER, Cytoplasm, Microtubules, Cell Wall

Nucleus function

Stores DNA

Mitochondrion function

Energy production

Ribosomes function

Translates proteins

Golgi apparatus function

Directs proteins to their correct destination and processes those proteins

Plasma Membrane function

Forms a barrier and controls what can and can not enter a cell(hydrophobic and Hydrophillic)

Smooth ER function

synthesizes lipids and makes cellular products like hormones

Cytoplasm function

Where chemical reactions and cellular processes take place. Also supports organelles within the cell allowing them to function

Rough ER function

Proteins are synthesized here. Proteins are permanently modified here.

Microtubules function

They provide the rigid organized, components of cytoskeleton that give shape to many cells help support and shape the cell

Cell wall

protects and helps keep organelles within the cell and protects cell from outside influences like osmotic pressure

gene expression

the process of using the information in DNA and making the final product.

Genome

All DNA in a cell ( all genes )

cell specialization

different cells making different proteins. Cell specialization is caused by differentiation which is the process of choosing which genes to express in order to make different cell types. GENERIC CELLS CHANGE INTO SPECIALIZED CELLS IN ORDER TO DO CERTAIN TASK.

Example of specialized cells

neurons- specific cells for the nervous system, Reproductive and blood cells.

First Main event evolution of cells

Common Prokaryotic ancestor gave rise to bacteria and archaea- 3.5 billion years ago

Second Main event evolution of cells

Eukaryotes arose 2.7 billion years ago apparently from a fusion between bacterial and archaea cells

Third Main event of evolution of cells

Multicellular plants, animals, and fungi developed from protists 1-2 billion years ago

First components made up hypothetical "first cell

Organic Molecules- RNA

Second Component of pre cell

Macromolecule- Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, Nucleic Acids

third component of pre cell

phospholipid bilayer( Macromolecule)

First Pre- Cell

First cell thought to have formed from self replicating RNA became enclosed inside Amphipathic( Hydrophobic and Hydrophillic)

Why are viruses not considered alive

Viruses are not considered alive because they need a host to survive and reproduce.

General structure of a virus

Virus either had DNA or RNA cant have but cells and viruses the only similarity is they both contain nucleotides

Model Organisms

Organisms that have been optimized to grow and study in a lab

Why are model organisms useful

Small, reproduce , quickly, easy to care for and manipulate

Microbiome

Collection of living things that are visible underneath a microscope.

Other cell types found in humans

Bacterial cells, Fungal cells, and viruses

How friendly bacteria benefit us

they benefit us because bacteria or microbiomes live in our skin nd in our gut and intestines which help us digest food, synthesize vitamins, and fight off infection

What does the difference in electronegativity determine

it determines the type of bonds between molecules

What is a non polar covalent bond

equal sharing of electrons. Hydrophobic

What is a polar covalent bond?

unequal sharing of electrons one bond wants more electrons than the other. Hydrophillic

H2O

Oxygen- Partially negative(delta symbol) hydrogen partially positive. Oxygen wants more of the electrons

ionic bond

sharing of electrons gained or loss.

ionic bond example

NaCl

Ionic bonds make things hydrophillic or hydrophobic ?

Hydrophillic

molecules with Polar Bonds

O-H, O-C, N-H

molecules with non-polar bonds

C-H, N-P

Chemical Reactions(making or breaking of bonds)

amino acids(reactants) -(arrow pointing in the direction of the chemical reaction) Polypeptide + H2O are the products ( where energy is require)

Energy can either be...

released or required

Where is RNA synthesized?

transcription

process in which proteins are synthesized

transcription and translation

Where does transcription occur?

nucleus

Where does translation occur?

ribosomes in the cytoplasm

WHich cells undergo transcription and translation

ALL CELLS

What explains the differences of two cells in the same organism

gene expression, how the genes are transcribed and the proteins that are present.

WHat molecules is synthesized in DNA replication

DNA

Why cells change their gene expression

Virus, drugs, and environmental factors

Transcription

Copy of dna being printed into mrna

mRNA (messenger RNA)

prints the copied DNA and sends it to translation

Translation

process of taking the genetic information and linking it to turn amino acids into proteins.