Final Exam Anatomy and Physiology 2

Where in the testes sperm are produced

seminiferous tubules

Where sperm mature and gain motility

epididymis

Which cells in the testes make testosterone

interstitial cells

Which cells make up the blood-testes barrier and why

sustentacular cells; protect sperm from exposure to the immune system

What the epididymis is and its function

highly coiled structure for storage and maturing of sperm

What the cremaster and dartos muscles do

cremaster muscle raises and lowers testes; dartos muscle wrinkles skin of the scrotum

Where the acrosome is and its function

helmet-like structure on the head of the sperm; contains enzymes to help penetrate into the egg

What the changes the sperm undergo before fertilization are called

capacitation

What the seminal vesicles produce

60% of semen volume

What the prostate produces

approximately one-third (33%) of semen volume

What the bulbourethral glands produce

alkaline mucus to neutralize acidic urine

What the glans penis is

distal expansion of corpus spongiosum

What the corpus spongiosum is and its function

erectile tissue that keeps the spongy urethra open during ejaculation

What the corpora cavernosa are and their function

paired dorsal bodies of erectile tissue that fill with blood to erect the penis

What the production of sperm is called

spermatogenesis

What meiosis is

cell division for sexual reproduction

What meiosis produces and how

haploid gametes through two consecutive divisions

What haploid and diploid are

haploid is half the normal number of chromosomes (n); diploid is the normal number of chromosomes (2n)

What occurs in prophase I

chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope breaks down, spindle forms, crossing over

What occurs in metaphase I

homologous chromosomes line up at the midline

What occurs in metaphase II

sister chromosomes line up at the midline

What occurs in anaphase I and anaphase II

anaphase I homologous chromosomes separate; anaphase II sister chromatids separate

What crossing over is and its purpose

genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes; to create genetic diversity

What a polar body is

the smaller cell formed during oogenesis from unequal division of the cytoplasm

What stage of meiosis the secondary oocyte stops in

metaphase II

When meiosis is completed in the secondary oocyte

only after fertilization

What the ejaculatory duct is and how it is formed

duct that carries semen into the prostate gland; the ampulla of the ductus deferens joins the duct of the seminal vesicle

What tissue the clitoris is made of and its function

erectile tissue; sensory function contributing to sexual arousal; homologous to the male penis

What the endometrium and myometrium are

endometrium is the inner mucosal lining of the uterus; myometrium is the smooth muscle middle layer of the uterus

What the placenta is

a temporary organ that supports and nourishes the developing fetus

What two structures contribute to the placenta formation

the trophoblast of the blastocyst and the endometrium of the uterus

When implantation occurs

usually six days after fertilization

What the stratum basalis is

the deeper layer of the endometrium

What the stratum functionalis is

the outer layer of the endometrium that proliferates then is shed during menstruation

Where the straight artery and spiral artery are in the uterus

straight artery to the stratum basalis; spiral artery to the stratum functionalis of the endometrium

Where the uterine artery arises from

internal iliac artery

What the cleavage stage is

rapid mitotic divisions without growth

What a morula is

a berry-shaped cluster of 16 or more cells

What an embryo and fetus are

embryo is week 2 through week 8; fetus is week 9 to birth

What the broad ligament and ovarian ligament are

broad ligament supports the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina; ovarian ligament connects the ovary to the uterus

What Down's syndrome is and the major risk factor is

trisomy (three # 21 chromosomes); age of the mother, risk increases greatly after age 35

What nondisjunction is

failure of chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate

What substances can cross the placenta

nutrients, oxygen, maternal antibodies, wastes, some harmful substances like alcohol, many drugs, some toxins

How substances are carried back to the fetus

umbilical vein

How the maternal and fetal circulation relate

they do not directly mix

How blood is shunted in the fetus

foramen ovale between the atria of the heart; ductus arteriosus between pulmonary trunk and aorta; ductus venosus to bypass the liver

What egg production is called:

oogenesis

What is produced during egg production

one viable egg and up to three polar bodies

When organogenesis is completed

8th week

What the cervix is

the narrow neck of the uterus

What the gubernaculum is

a strong fibrous cord that guides the testes as they descend

What the pampiniform plexus is and its functions

a network of veins in the testes that lead into the testicular veins and help cool arterial blood as it enters the testes

What the amnion produces and why

the sac produces amniotic fluid to protect the fetus

What colustrum is

produced the first two to three days; less lactose and fat than milk, more protein , vitamin A and minerals than true milk

What cryptorchidism is

failure of testes to descend

What premature infants often lack

surfactant

Where fertilization occurs

distal portion of the uterine tube

What the corona radiata is

elongated follicle cells around a mature ovum (egg)

What a blastocyst is

a fluid-filled hollow sphere that implants into the endometrium

What the trophoblast is

part of the blastocyst that forms some of the placenta

What the corpus luteum is and its function

the remnant of the ruptured follicle that produces progesterone and estrogen

What crowning is

the head of the fetus appears during childbirth

What tenting of the uterus is and when it occurs

uprighting of the uterus to a near vertical position during the plateau stage

What the order of the sexual response is

excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

What the order of travel of sperm is

seminiferous tubules, straight tubule, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis, ductus deferens, ampulla of ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy urethra, external urethral orifice

What the order of travel of the egg is

ovary, pelvic cavity, fimbriae of uterine tube, uterine tube

What ovulation is

release of the egg (ovum) from the mature follicle

What the refractory periods are in males and females

males- minutes to hours when cannot achieve another orgasm; female- none

What the broad, ovarian, and suspensory ligaments are

Suspensory ligament anchors the ovary to the pelvic wall

What FSH and LH stimulate production of in males; in females

FSH -sperm production in men and egg and follicle production in females; LH- testosterone production in men and progesterone and estrogen production in females

What the vulva is

female external genitalia including the mons pubis, labia, and clitoris

Yaye! You did it!

You completed the whole set! Good Luck!