Chapter 18 Key Terms


The broad-based reform movement, 1900-1917, sought governmental action to solve problems in many areas of American life, including education, public health, the economy, the environment, labor, transportation, and politics.


Writing that exposed corruption and abuses in politics,business, meatpacking, child labor, and more, primarily in the first decade of the twentieth century; including popular books and magazine articles that spurred public interest in reform.

The Jungle (Upton Sinclair)

The novel portrays the harsh conditions and exploited lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities

Ellis Island

Reception center in New York Harbor through which most European immigrants to America were processed from 1892 to 1954.


Early twentieth-century term describing the economic system pioneered by Ford Motor Company based on high wages and mass consumption.

Scientific Management

Management campaign to improve workerefficiency using measurements like "time and motion" studies to achieve greater productivity; introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911.

Socialist Party (1901)

The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a socialist political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America who had split from the main organization in 1899.

Eugene V. Debs

Debs helped motivate the American left to organize political opposition to corporations and World War I. American socialists, communists, and anarchists honor his work for the labor movement and motivation to have the average working man build socialism without large state involvement.

Industrial Worker of the World

Radical union organized in Chicago in1905 and nicknamed the Wobblies; its opposition to World War I led to its destruction by the federal government under the Espionage Act.

The right to collective bargaining

the right of individual employees in a workplace to come together and to choose a representative, based on a majority vote, who will then negotiate with their employer over terms and conditions of employment.

New Feminism

A new aspect of the women's rights movement that arose in the early part of the twentieth century. New feminism added a focus on individual and sexual freedom to the movement, and introduced the word"feminism" into American life.

Isadora Duncan

Duncan's style was controversial for its time, as it defied what she viewed as the constricting conventions of ballet, placing major emphasis on the human female form and free-flowing moves.

Birth Control Movement

An offshoot of the early twentieth-centuryfeminist movement that saw access to birth control and "voluntary motherhood" as essential to women's freedom. The birth-control movement was led by Margaret Sanger.

Margaret Sanger

Margaret Sanger devoted her life to legalizing birth control and making it universally available for women.

Society of American Indians

Organization founded in 1911 that broughttogether Native American intellectuals of many tribal backgrounds to promote discussion of the plight of Indian peoples.

Wisconsin Idea

a philosophy embraced by the University of Wisconsin System (UW System) that holds that university research should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, and agriculture for all citizens of the state.

Seventeenth Amendment

Progressive reform passed in 1913 that requiredU.S. senators to be elected directly by voters; previously, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Jane Addams

Jane Addams was the second woman to receive the Peace Prize. She founded the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1919, and worked for many years to get the great powers to disarm and conclude peace agreements. Founder of Hull House/ Settlement House Movement

Muller vs. Oregon

1908 Supreme Court decision that held that state interest in protecting women could override liberty of contract. Louis D. Brandeis, with help from his sister-in-law Josephine Goldmark of the National Consumers League, filed a brief in Muller that used statistics aboutwomen's health to argue for their protection.

Theodore Roosevelt (R)

True Americanism- ideologies include republicanism, freedom, liberty, individualism, constitutionalism, human rights, and the rule of law.

John Muir

Because of his influential writings and role in the creation of multiple parks, he is often called "The Father of Our National Park System." John Muir also co-founded the Sierra Club in 1892 and was its first president until his death in 1914.

Conservation Movement

A progressive reform movement focused on thepreservation and sustainable management of the nation's natural resources.

Gifford Pinchot

Gifford Pinchot was an important figure in the American conservation movement. As the first chief of the US Forest Service, Pinchot tripled the nation's forest reserves, protecting their long term health for both conservation and recreational use.

William H. Taft (R)

William Howard Taft was elected the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later became the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930), the only person to have served in both of these offices.

Sixteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment passed in 1913 thatlegalized the federal income tax.

Progressive Party

Political party created when former president TheodoreRoosevelt broke away from the Republican Party to run for president again in 1912; the party supported progressive reforms similar to those of theDemocrats but stopped short of seeking to eliminate trusts. Also the name of the party backing Robert La Follette for president in 1924.

Election of 1912

Wilson was the first Democrat since 1856 to win the popular vote by double digits. Roosevelt finished second with 88 electoral votes and 27% of the popular vote. Taft carried 23% of the national vote and won two states, Vermont and Utah. He was the first Republican to lose the Northern states.

New Freedom

Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in thepresidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.

New Nationalism

Platform of the Progressive Party and slogan of formerpresident Theodore Roosevelt in the presidential campaign of 1912; stressed government activism, including regulation of trusts, conservation, and recall of state court decisions that had nullified progressive programs.

Woodrow Wilson (D)

Woodrow Wilson, a leader of the Progressive Movement, was the 28th President of the United States (1913-1921). After a policy of neutrality at the outbreak of World War I, Wilson led America into war in order to "make the world safe for democracy.

Federal Trade Comission

Woodrow Wilson, a leader of the Progressive Movement, was the 28th President of the United States (1913-1921). After a policy of neutrality at the outbreak of World War I, Wilson led America into war in order to "make the world safe for democracy.