psych unit 9

Altruism

Devotion and unselfish regard for the welfare of others; selflessness

Bystander effect

The tendency for a person to be less likely to assist and give aid if other people are present

Central route to persuasion

attitude/thoughts of an individual are changed as a result of facts of the situation

Cognitive dissonance

when a person has two contradictory cognitions/beliefs/actions at the same time, the go against each other

Confirmation Bias

The tendency to look for evidence that confirms beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts what one believes to be true

Compliance

changing behaviors under pressure from others by request

Conformity

to change one's attitude and behavior to make them consistent with those of other people

Deindividuation

loss of individual identity in presence of a larger group

Prejudice

an unjustified attitude towards a group

Discrimination

unjustified behavior selectively applied to members of a group

Door in face phenomenon

request for a favor likely to be ignored. admit the favor was excessive and ask for a lesser alternative

False consensus effect

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

Foot in door phenomenon

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

Fundamental Attribution Error

tendency to attribute the behavior of others as internal

Group Polarization

the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

Groupthink

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

Normative social influence

Influence that results from a person's desire to gain approval and avoid disapproval

In-group/out-group bias

tendency to show positive feelings toward people who belong to the same group as we do, and negative feelings toward those in other groups

Just-world hypothesis

assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people

Mere exposure effect

Repeated exposure to a stimulus increases an individual's likelihood of liking it

Peripheral route to persuasion

attitude/thoughts of an individual change as a result of any subjective measure of the situation (opinion)

Prisoner's Dilemma (be able to evaluate a payoff matrix)

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, end up with the worst possible outcome

Reciprocity Norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

Scapegoat Theory

The theory that attempts to offer an outlet for anger and discrimination by providing someone to blame

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Belief that leads to its own fulfillment

Self-serving bias

the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors

Situational attribution

attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck

Social Facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

Social inhibition

The tendency to perform complex or difficult tasks more poorly in the presence of others

Actor-observer bias

people attribute others behavior to internal causes; tend to attribute their own behavior to external causes

Stereotype

perceptions, beliefs, and expectations we have about members of a group

Stereotype threat

fear of fulfilling a stereotype when around a group

Obedience

executing an action after being directed by an "authority figure

Social loafing

tendency of a person in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually

Ethnocentrism

you only see the world through your own cultural perspective

Outgroup homogeneity bias

seeing the unique features in your group but see other groups as generic & all the same

Frustration Aggression principle

frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression

Proximity (as it relates to attraction)

geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship/attraction

Sternberg's Triangular theory of love and attraction

3 parts of love: intimacy, passion, & commitment; combined makes 7 different types of love