Absolute distance: can be measured on a straight line: distance between point A and point B.Absolute location: defines a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude and longitude. Ex.: USA's Capitol Building is 38 degrees north of the Equator and 77degrees west of the Prime Meridian.Cartogram: uses simplified geometries/shapes to represent real-world places. Ex.: In order to show which countries of the world are the most populous, all countries of theworld would be shrunk or enlarged according to their population size. India would be huge and bloated in size compared to shrunken Canada. Mexico would beelongated/stretched compared with little Spain.Chloropleth maps: express the geographic variability of a particular theme using color variations. There is a key/legend explaining what each color represents. Ex.: a politicalmap of USA with blue colored Democratic states versus red colored Republic states.Dot distribution map: use dots to express the volume and density of a particular geographic feature. The dots can represent the # of people in an area, or can express thenumber of events or phenomena that occurred in an area. Ex.: dots representing the # of people who suffered heart attacks on a state-by-state basis. Each state would have anumber of dots inside of its boundary polygon/shape representing number of heart attacks.Friction of distance: When the length of distances becomes a factor that hinders the interaction between two points, this is known friction of distance. Ex: This can be seenwhen the combined time and cost of moving a product prevents it from being sold in far-off locations. Ex.: It costs too much money and time to ship or sell Ford cars/trucks inLithuania.Flow-line maps: use lines of varying thickness to show the direction and volume of a particular geographic movement patterns. Ex.: a map of flow lines showing the totalnumber of foreign immigrants in the USA. Each line would begin in the country of origin and point to the USA, with a thickness based upon the total number of immigrants.Human geography: study of where and why human activities are located where they are. Ex.: religions, businesses, and cities.Isoline map: calculate data values between points across a variable surface. Between point A and point B, a series of contour lines can be drawn to show the change in databetween the 2 points.Lambert projection: In order to maintain a relative accuracy of the areas on a map, some polygons/shapes are squished together. Ex.: The northern Canadian islands aresquished closer to Canada's mainland in order to match the same map scale as Canada on a flat sheet of paper.legend: or key explains the symbols or dots or classifications or colors on a map.Mercator projection: Shape is distorted very little, direction is consistent, and the map is rectangular, flat, and has a grid/graph look. Great disadvantage is the land area isgrossly distorted toward the poles - look much larger than they actually are.Relative location: refers to the location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature. Ex: Camas is located east of Vancouver, WA, about 6 miles via Hwy. 14 onthe Columbia R.Robinson projection: is useful for displaying information across the oceans. Its major disadvantage is that by allocating space to the oceans, the land areas are much smaller.The world is presented with rounded look on the edges.Sequent occupancy: The succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place's history. In many places there are several different historical place-specific culture,society, politics, and economy. Ex: England settled by Celts, Normans, Vikings, Romans, etc.Thematic map: a number of different map types can be group under this heading. Each one expresses a particular subject and does not show land forms for other features:chloropleth, isoline, dot distribution, flow-line, and cartograms.Tobler's Law: all places are interrelated but closer places are more related than further ones. Ex.: Camas is interrelated with Washington State, but it is far more related to SWWashington, Vancouver, and Portland, OR.Topographic maps: show the lines of elevation, as well as the urban and vegetation surface with road, building, river, and other natural landscape features. These maps arehighly accurate in terms of location and topography. They are used for engineering surveys and land navigation, especially wilderness areas.


large body of water completely or partly surrounded by land


A letter