Pre AP English II Terms - Sandroni Test 2


the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true

verbal irony

when a speaker or narrator says one thing while meaning the opposite

situational irony

when events turn out the opposite of what was expected; when what the character and readers think ought to happen is not what actually happens. ex. doctor dying

dramatic irony

when facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.


a comparison of two unlike things not using like or as


a term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name" metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. for example a news release that claims the white house declared rather than the president declared is using metonymy; the penis mightier than the sword. ("pen" refers to written words and "sword" to military force; and let me give you hand


the atmosphere or predominant emotion of literary work


the feeling of a story or an account of an event or series of events


a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmur


a form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression. ex. sweet sorrow and cold fire


occurs when the elements of a statement contradict each other. although the statement may appear illogical, impossible, or absurd, it turns out to have a coherent meaning that reveals a hidden truth


the repetition of words or phrases that have similar grammatical structures.


a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics


the sequence of events or actions in a short story, novel, play, or narrative. the plot includes the exposition, rising action, climax or turning point, falling action, and resolution

point of view

the perspective from which a story is told

first person point of view

the narrator tells the story with the first person pronoun, "I" and is a character in the story. This narrator can be the protagonist, secondary character, or an observing character.

third person limited point of view

narrator relates the events with the third person pronouns, "he" "she" and "it". The narrator presents the feelings and thoughts of only one character, presenting only the actions of all the remaining characters.

third person omniscient point of view

narrator relates the events with the third person pronouns, "he", "she", and "it". The narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents the thoughts that and actions of any or all characters.


the central character of a dram, novel, short story, or narrative poem


a play on words that are identical or similar in a sound but have diverse meanings. puns can have a serious as well as humorous uses. Example: when mercutio is bleeding to death in romeo and juliet, he says to his friends, "ask me for me tomorrow, and you shall find me a grave


the deliberate use of any element of language more than once - sound, word, phrase, sentence, grammatical pattern, or rhythmical pattern


the use of language to achieve a purpose; often it is the use of words to persuade in writing or speaking. rhetorical appeals include logos, ethos, and pathos

logos/logical appeal

a speaker or writer offers a clear, reasoned central idea and develops it with appropriate evidence to appeal to an audience's sense of logic

pathos/ emotional appeal

a speaker or writer draws on the emotions and interests of the audience so that they will be sympathetically inclined to accept and buy into central ideas and arguements

ethos/ ethical appeal

a speaker or writer offers evidence that he or she is credible and knows important and relevant information about the topic at hand. the speaker wants the audience to know that he or she is a good, believable person who has the readers' best interest at heart.

rhetorical question

a question that requires no answer. it is used to draw attention to a point and is generally stronger than using a direct statement.


the verbal irony in which a person appears to be praising something but it is actually insulting it. ex. as i fell down the stairs headfirst, i heard her say, "look at that coordination


the time and place in which events events in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem take place


a change or movement in which events in a piece resulting epiphany, realization, or insight gained by the speaker, a character, or the reader


a comparison of two different things using like or as. as blue as the sky


any object, person, place, or action that has both a meaning in itself that stands for something larger than itself, such as a quality, attitude, belief, or value. ex. In A Separate Peace, the novel's most prominent symbol is the tree from which Finny falls. It represents the fall from innocence and the transformation from youth to adulthood, a transformation Gene makes, but Finny does not.


a form of metaphor in which a part of something is used to represent the whole ex. "all hands on deck"-also, the reverse, whereby the whole can represent a part (ex.) "canada played the United States in the Olympic hockey finals"-another form involves the container representing the thing being contained (ex.) "the pot is boiling-in one last form synecdoche, the material from which an object is made stands for the object itself. (ex.) "the quarterback tossed the pigskin.


the arrangement of words and order of grammatical elements in a sentence


the central message of a literary work. it is no the same as a subject, which can be expressed in a word or two: courage, survival, war, pride, etc. The theme is the idea the author wishes to convey about the subject. ex. pride often precedes a fall


the writer's or speaker's attitude toward a subject character, or audience, and it is conveyed through the author's choice of words and details. tone can be serious, humorous, sarcastic, indignant, objective, etc.


the ironic minimizing of fact; understatement presents something as less significant than it is. the effect can frequently be humorous and empathetic. Understatement is the opposite of hyperbole. ex. "i could probably manage to survive on a salary on a two million dollars